Chapter 14: New World Expansion
Terms in this set (39)
A term referring to the reconquest of Iberian Peninsula by Christian ruler at Muslim expense, culminating in the fall of Granada in 1492.
Spain's Jews and Muslims were required to convert to Catholicism, and the Inquisition became responsible for assuring that all forms of heresy were kept at bay.
"Age of Exploration"
led by people such as Vasco da Gama, Ferdinand Magellan, and Christopher Columbus quickly gave way to a period of expansion and conquest during the early sixteenth century. Spain and Portugal gained profit, prestige, and power as a result of establishing their overseas empires, but they also produced a legacy of violence, disease, and destruction among the lands and peoples they conquered.
German Peasants' War (1524-1525)
Shortly after Martin Luther's pamphlets on religious reform were published in 1520, a series of popular revolts occurred in several regions of the Holy Roman Empire
The peasants also gained support from workers and the poor in small towns throughout these regions, leading some historians to see this as a "Revolution of the Common Man," instead of a rural peasants' revolt.
The rebellion's leaders issued lists of grievances, demanding relief from taxes, feudal dues, and serfdom, fairness in the administration of justice, and an end to corruption among the local clergy.
The most famous document about the German peasants' grievances and program for change was "The Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants,"
battle of Frankenhausen in Saxony (May 1525)
culminating in the peasants' defeat at the battle of Frankenhausen in Saxony (May 1525). Some of the peasants' forces negotiated a peaceful surrender, but thousands of those who participated in the German Peasants' War were killed in the repression that followed the war's end.
Philip of Hesse (1504-1567)
implemented Lutheran reforms within his lands in west central Germany beginning in 1526, establishing a new university at Marburg to train Protestant theologians and supporting the appointment of reformed ministers to local churches.
Some German provinces, principalities, and cities remained committed to Catholic beliefs, practices, and institutions, while others adopted Protestant beliefs and practices, reorganizing their churches, clergy, and communities accordingly.
cities retained Catholics in their midst and sought to avoid outright rebellion against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (ruled 1519-1556).
In 1531, a group of Protestant German princes and imperial cities formed the Schmalkaldic League, a military alliance to defend reformed religion against Charles' efforts to impose Catholicism throughout his empire, ts members included local rulers and cities from across the Empire.
Battle of Mühlberg
the League's resistance became an outright war during the period 1546-1547, until imperial troops defeated the League's forces at the Battle of Mühlberg.
Peace of Augsburg
Charles found it impossible to eliminate Protestant princes, churches, and communities from his realm. In 1555, he issued the Peace of Augsburg, which declared that local rulers would determine the religion of their subjects in many areas of the Empire.
The Peace of Augsburg thus authorized religious pluralism in much of Germany, although only in a limited way: its provisions gave legal recognition to Catholics and Lutherans, but not to Calvinists or other religious groups. Moreover, local rulers would decide which religion would be legally upheld in a given region or town, while commoners had little or no say in the matter.
The Peace of Augsburg assured a measure of peace and political order for the remainder of the sixteenth century, but it also signaled the failure of Charles V's quest to remove heresy from his lands.
Affair of the Placards
in October 1534, broadsheets condemning the Roman Catholic Church's teachings suddenly appeared overnight on doorways and city walls in Paris and elsewhere. One was pinned on the door to the king's own bedchamber, in his castle at Amboise. Francis I began to pursue a harsher policy against Protestants in France.
King Henry II (ruled 1547-1559)
Francis' son and successor took even stronger measures to stop the spread of heresy in France, whether in the form of Lutheran or Calvinist ideas.
A law court established by King Henry II in Paris, royal magistrates prosecuted hundreds of suspects, some of whom were publicly executed. Stricter censorship of books and pamphlets was enforced, and offending works were often burned in market squares.
the population of French Calvinists
Catherine de Medici (1519-1589)
Mother of three of Henry II's sons
She worked tirelessly to protect her sons—and the power of the monarchy itself
Massacre of Vassy
In March 1562, the Duke of Guise, a staunch Catholic, encountered a group of Huguenots conducting religious services in a barn. Guise and his companions attacked the Huguenots, setting the barn on fire and killing many.
launching the French Wars of Religion, a struggle between Catholics and Huguenots which also pitted the crown against nobles and urban elites of both confessions.
Henry VIII (ruled 1509-1547)
The Tudors had only come to power in 1485, as a result of Henry's father's victory over rival claimants to the English throne in the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485)
He had received a fine humanist education and considered himself well informed about both the classics and Christian theology.
ongoing rivalry with two contemporary monarchs: King Francis I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
Much of England's foreign policy revolved around attempts to mediate conflicts among France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire.
Henry was anxious to secure the Tudor dynasty's future by marrying and having children.
Thomas Cromwell (1485-1540).
The man who ultimately helped resolve "the King's Great Matter"
Wolsey's assistant and rose to become a key member of the king's council.
Cromwell's main achievement was to have England's Parliament issue a series of laws which gave the king authority over the Church in England, thus rejecting the pope's jurisdiction over English clerics, taxes, and legal issues—including the king's marriage.
These laws culminated in the 1534 Act of Supremacy, which declared Henry VIII to be "supreme head in earth of the Church of England." English monarchs retain leadership of the Church of England to this day.
high ranking English nobles, clerics, and government officials were required to swear that they would uphold the new laws that defined the king's leadership of the English Church; failure to do so resulted in trials and public executions.
During the period 1536-1539, Parliament ordered many of England's monasteries and convents to be dissolved and their property seized by the crown.
Pilgrimage of Grace
Also in 1536, nobles and commoners in northern England joined in an uprising, thousands of rebels proclaimed their loyalty to England's traditional religious practices and institutions, though they also protested against rising taxes and food shortages due to recent poor harvests.
The legacy of Henry VIII and Cromwell's policies
English monarchs would retain authority over the Church of England, but the English people's beliefs and practices did not necessarily change.
Edward VI (ruled 1547-1553)
supported further Protestant religious reforms during his brief reign
Mary I (ruled 1553-1558)
was staunchly Catholic and sought to reverse the policies of her half-brother and her father.
Elizabeth I (1558)
she quickly established a religious policy of moderation which became known as the "Elizabethan Settlement." She accepted the title of Supreme Governor of the Church (and the authority which came with it), but she supported a moderately Protestant set of beliefs and practices and required mainly outward conformity from her subjects.
English Catholics were dissatisfied because the Church of England remained outside the Roman Catholic Church, while English Calvinists (sometimes known as Puritans) believed that the queen's reforms were not rigorous enough. The simmering discontent of both religious minorities would remain a problem throughout Elizabeth's reign.
By the fifteenth century, the Iberian peninsula was divided into four major kingdoms.
Portugal lay to the west, with a coastline open to the Atlantic Ocean, several excellent ports (including Lisbon, its major city), and an economy built around seafaring and trade. Castile was the largest and richest of the kingdoms, drawing its wealth from agriculture and sheep farming, while Aragon's coastline bordered the Mediterranean. Granada occupied the southern portion of the peninsula and was the last remaining area under Moorish control, a remnant of the time when all of Iberia had been under Muslim rule as al-Andalus
the union of Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516) and Isabella of Castile (1451-1504)
Civil wars and unrest were rampant within the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile when Ferdinand and Isabella wed in 1469, and their alliance was not immediately welcomed by all. Moreover, their kingdoms remained fundamentally separate, even though their crowns were united: Aragon and Castile each retained their own laws, armies, taxes, and local institutions.
Investigating such suspicions (conversos and moriscos were often suspected of having made false conversions) became a major task for Spain's Inquisition, which was established in 1478 and strongly supported by Ferdinand and Isabella.
Ferdinand and Isabella pursued a policy of overseas expansion for Spain by sponsoring the voyages of Christopher Columbus (1451-1506).
gave Ferdinand and Isabella an opportunity to assert authority over the southern part of the emerging kingdom of Spain.
became the basis for a religious policy that required adherence to Christianity.
a smaller, lighter craft—could travel long distances, using lateen (triangular) sails and wind power.
Prince Henry "the Navigator" (1394 - 1460)
a younger son of King John I, became the most important patron of Portugal's overseas expansion. He established a school for the study of navigation and sponsored the first expeditions to explore the western coast of Africa in 1420.
Portugal's purpose for overseas exploration
focused on finding a sea route to India, the source of Europe's spice trade.
Bartolomeu Dias (c. 1450-1500)
brought Portugal closer to achieving this goal in 1487 by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope
Vasco da Gama (c. 1469-1524)
actually reached Calicut, a major city on the Malabar Coast of India, in 1498.
Da Gama returned to India in 1502 to conduct a ruthless campaign against Calicut's leaders and ended his career as Portugal's Viceroy of India in 1523.
Pedro Alvarez Cabral (c. 1467-1520)
made landfall on the eastern coast of South America, which he claimed for Portugal. The Portuguese crown would sponsor settlements there after 1530, and the region would later be named Brazil.
After failing to win support for his venture from Portugal, Genoa, Venice, or England, he succeeded in persuading Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to fund his first voyage.
When he landed on islands in the Caribbean (including Cuba and Hispaniola), he believed that he had reached Asia or "the Indies."
Columbus further explored and attempted to establish colonies in the Caribbean and Central America during three subsequent voyages, but his claims of abundant mineral wealth in these areas went unfulfilled.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
awarded to Portugal any unclaimed lands to the east of an imaginary line that crossed the Atlantic Ocean, while Spain received all lands to the west.
Amerigo Vespucci (1451-1512)
explored the eastern coast of South America on several voyages undertaken between 1499 and 1505
Ferdinand Magellan (c. 1480-1521)
led an expedition that circumnavigated the earth by traveling westward, around South America and across the Pacific Ocean.
Hernán Cortés (1485-1547) and Francisco Pizarro (c. 1470-1541)
Spain's ambitions to find riches—especially in the form of gold and silver—were accomplished in the Americas by two conquistadors
Cortés, who emigrated to the Caribbean as a young man, led a small expedition into New Spain (modern-day Mexico) in 1519. He attacked the Aztec empire there, seizing its capital city of Tenochtitlán and capturing its ruler, Moctezuma (or Montezuma) II.
Francisco Pizarro and his brothers followed a similar pattern, departing from Panama in 1530 to invade the Inca empire in modern-day Peru. Pizarro took advantage of divisions among the Incas to depose their leaders, attack the city of Cuzco, and seize an enormous quantity of gold and silver.
They both benefited from the use of Spanish weapons and mounted soldiers and diseases which drastically reduced the indigenous population.
linking Europe, Africa, and the Americas had developed, with the transatlantic slave trade at their core.
enslaved Africans were transported to the Caribbean and the Americas, combined with the harsh labor and living conditions that awaited them, meant that the profits of overseas colonies came at a tremendous human cost.
were established to regulate trade and collect taxes, while monarchs issued a host of laws, decrees, and edicts governing their colonial subjects.
With state approval, Catholic priests, monks, and nuns migrated overseas, while members of the Jesuit and Dominican religious orders were especially active as missionaries.
Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566)
a landholder in the Caribbean and traveled widely in Spanish America before becoming a Dominican friar, criticized such practices in his treatise Brief Relation of the Destruction of the Indies, printed in 1542. Las Casas frequently lobbied Spanish rulers, including Ferdinand of Aragon and his grandson, Emperor Charles V, to insist on more humane treatment for native peoples.
Bartolomeu Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope (Africa) 1487
Fall of Granada; Christopher Columbus' first voyage 1492
Treaty of Tordesillas 1494
Vasco da Gama reaches India 1498
Hernán Cortés conquers Aztec empire (Mexico) 1519-1521
German Peasants' Rebellion 1524-1525
Francisco Pizarro conquers Inca empire (Peru) 1531-1533
Act of Supremacy declares King Henry VIII head of the Church of England; Affair of the Placards in France 1534
Peace of Augsburg 1555
Peace of Câteau-Cambrésis 1559
Massacre at Vassy; beginning of French Wars of Religion 1562