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AP Environmental Science: Basics
Terms in this set (70)
Not formed from living things or the remains of living things
of, relating to, or derived from living matter and
Fixed or determined by nature; pertaining to the constitution of a thing
Energy of motion
A spontaneous process in which unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting radiation
the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)
Law of Conservation of Matter
The principle that the total amount of matter is constant during any physical or chemical change (matter is neither created nor destroyed during these types of changes).
1st Law of Thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.
A measure of disorder or randomness and a function of thermodynamic variables, as temperature, pressure, or composition, that is a measure of the energy that is not available for work during a thermodynamic process
A living thing
Comprising related organisms that share common characteristics and are capable of interbreeding.
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
an interacting group of various species in a common location. For example, a forest of trees and undergrowth plants, inhabited by animals and rooted in soil containing bacteria and fungi
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Make their own food
any organism capable of self-nourishment by using inorganic materials as a source of nutrients and using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis as a source of energy, as most plants and certain bacteria and protists.
An organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
Break down organic matter
carbon dioxide and water --> Glucose and oxygen
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
Cellular Respiration (reactants and products)
C6H12O6 (Glucose) + 6O2--> 6CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) + 6H20 (Water) + ATP (Energy)
Process that requires oxygen
Describes a process that does not require oxygen.
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Represented in pairs with an upper case letter for the dominant (A) and a lower case letter for the recessive (a). Since half the genetic material is from each parent, the offspring's traits are represented as a combination of these.
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each _____ consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
Combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any known living individuals.
A theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move.
Geological processes, such as continental drift, volcanoes, and earthquakes, resulting from plate movement
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
Change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over periods of decades
A naturally formed aggregate, or mixture, of minerals; have varied chemical compositions
A solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence.
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
The amount of biological or living diversity per unit area. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity.
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates