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Psy 3341 Final Deason
Terms in this set (71)
what is language? How is language universal? what is the structure of language?
Languages are unique but the same.
-They have different words, sounds rules
-all have nouns,verbs,negatives,questions,past/present tense.
-all cultures have a language and its development is similar across cultures.
How did BF Skinner believe children learn language?
Believed that language was learned through reinforcement.
-language is shaped, language isn't special developmentally.
How did Noam Chomsky respond to Skinner ideas?
Believed that language was coded through genes.
-thought that the basis of language is similar.
-children repeat things that they have never heard and have never been reinforced for.
what is a phoneme?
shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of the word.
What is a morpheme?
smallest unit of language that has meaning or grammatical function. eg. boy-boyish-boyishness
what is the phonemic restoration effect?
Phenomena that allows us to fill in the missing blanks in words that we can't fully here based on context of sentence and portion of word presented.
What is the Warren experiment? How is it related to PRE?
legislature sentence experiment. where participants were asked to repeat sentence, filled in appropriately based on context
What is the McGurk effect?
Phenomena where our vision indicates one phoneme and sound indicates another.
Why is word perception and speech segmentation difficult?
Word perception is hard to seperate speech into individual words.
-very little space between words during a stream of speech.
-foreign language, understanding song lyrics.
-word combination frequencies
What is lexical ambiguity?
Words that often have more than one meaning.
-bank, bug, bark, ring
-interpretation constrained by context.
-both meanings are initially activated.
What is the lexical decision task?
Deciding if letter string in a word is real. Trying to decide words from non-words.
What is lexical priming?
Stimulus that activates a representation of the stimulus.
-respond more rapidly if activation is still present when stimulus is presented again.
-using this task determines which meaning is activated.
What did the Swinney bug/ant experiment tell us about lexical ambiguity?
The fact that the reaction times to art and spy were not significantly different showed that people briefly accessed both meanings of the word bugs as they read this word in a sentence.
What are word frequency effects? How are these effect shown in lexical decision tasks and in eyetracking tasks?
Word frequency effect - responding more rapidly to high frequency words.
-eye movements when reading tend to look at low frequency words the longest.
What is the difference between syntax v. semantics?
Syntax refers to combining different types of words in sentences.
Semantics (meaning) - knowledge of the meaning of words and how they do and do not combine.
what is the syntax first approach to sentence processing?
Parsing - mental grouping of words in a sentence into phrases.
-Grammatical structure of sentence determines parsing.
-late closure: parser assumes new word is part of the current phrase.
-syntax is first-pass, but then semantics may lead to correction.
what are garden path sentences and how are they used?
As people read a sentence, their grouping of words into phrases is governed by a number of processing mechanisms, called heuristics.
what is the interactionist approach to sentence processing? How does the Tannehous experiment support this?
Semantics influence processing as one reads a sentence.
Tannehous: eye movements change when information is necessary. Syntatic and semantic information used simultaneously.
why and what kinds of inferences does discourse/text process allow us to make?
Allows us to make:
-instrumental (like hammer example)
-causal (events linked causally)
what is the situation model?
A model that shows that we comprehend sentences by experiencing a story or having a mental image in our head.
what is the horton and Rapp study and how does it relate to the situation model?
Mom either stood in front or behind tv and told little girl to do homework. Situational model of story affects response time.
what is the Zwann study and how does it relate to the situation model?
what is the given new contract in conversation?
Speaker constructs sentences so they include
-new information then can become given information.
What is syntactic coordination/priming?
Syntatic coordination - using similar grammatical constructions
syntatic priming - production of a specific grammatical construction by one person increases chances other person will use that construction.
-reduces computational load in conversation.
What is the Branigan experiment?
What is the Sapir Whorf hypothesis?
How we think is determined by the language we speak.
-you cant certain things in other languages. (strong)
-certain thoughts are more difficult to generate because they are clumsy to express in one's native language. (weak)
What is the Winawer color experiment and how does it relate to language and thought?
Experiment where Russian and english speaker had to identify color blue. Russian speakers responded more quickly when bottom squares were from different categories.
no difference in response times for english speakers.
What is Broca's aphasia? What functions are impaired/preserved in these patients? Brain regions involved?
Gramatical structure or syntax is impaired. Speech is labored as slow and telegraphic. Articulation is impaired, and lacks melodic intonation. Broca's area, adjacent cortex, white matter, and basal ganglia.
When do you use problem solving?
1-it is purposeful (goal directed)
2-it involves controlled processes and is not totally reliant on automatic processes.
3-a problem only exists when someone lacks the relevant knowledge to produce an immediate solution.
What are two main problem types?
fixation - focusing on one aspect of a problem.
functional fixedness - inability to see objects outside their normal uses.
-an obstacle to problem solving that is illustrated by Duncker's candle problem and Maier's two-string problem.
what is the gestalt approach to problem solving?
focused on how people represent a problem in their mind. They devised a number of problems to illustrate how solving a problem involves a restructuring of this representation and to demonstrate factors that pose obstacles to problem solving.
what are insight/aha problems?
Insight: understanding how to approach a problem
Insight experience: the Aha moment, process of restructuring the problem.
Most problems require insight but few have the Aha moment
what is the metcalfe & wiebe insight experiment - what did it tell us about how these types of problems may be solved differently?
what is mental set? What is an example of problem illustrating this obstacle?
a preconceived notion about how to approach a problem, which is determined by a person's experience or what has worked in the past..
Luchin's water jug experiment.
what is the information processing approach to solving problems?
A particular configuration of a problem is called a state
An operator gets you from one state to another
The problem as a whole is called the problem space
how can the tower of Hanoi problem be used to demonstrate the information processing approach?
How can the statement of the problem affect one's ability to solve it? what are examples?
It can influence the way we solve problems like the acrobat problem
what is the think aloud protocol?
When you say aloud what you are thinking, and it shifts the way you perceive a problem.
what is analogical problem solving? what are examples?
Using a strategy from one problem to solve a similar problem.
Ex: tower of hanoi probelm and acrobat problem.
what are surface features v. structural features?
Surface features get in the way and structural features must be used.
what are the steps to using analogical problem solving?
-Noticing that there is a relationship between one problem and the other
-Mapping the corresponding parts of one story to the other
-Applying the mapping to the new problem to arrive at an analogous solution
-must ignore the surface features of a problem and focus on the underlying structural features. .
what is the analogical paradox?
that participants in psychological experiments tend to focus on surface features in analogy problems, whereas people in the real world frequently focus on deeper, more structural features. In vivo problem-solving research has shown that analogical problem solving is often used in real-world settings.
what is means end analysis?
-reduce space between initial and goal states
-creating subgoals that get us closer to the goal
example: first try to free the larger disc so you can move it, then ...
might need to think ahead before choosing strategy
A way of solving a problem in which the goal is to reduce the difference between the initial and goal states.
what are differences between novices and experts in problem solving?
-Experts solve problems in their field faster and with a higher success rate than beginners.
-experts are not better than novices when given problems outside of their field.
-experts less likely to be open to new ways of looking at problems.
what are advantages and disadvantages to being an expert?
-knowledge is organized so it can be accessed when need to work on a problem.
-information is also organized more effectively in long term memory.
-experts spend more time analyzing a problem.
what are the differences between divergent v. convergent thinking?
Divergent thinking: thinking of many possible solutions.
Convergent thinking: thinking directed at one correct solution.
what is design fixation?
Fixated on what not to do as demonstrated by sample, fixation can inhibit problem solving.
what are measures of creativity?
-divergent production test
-harder to measure than convergent thinking
What did the finke experiment tell us about creativity?
you can train people to be creative by creating objects out of objects already given. (creative cognition)
what is deductive reasoning?
cognitive processes that allow us to draw conclusions from given information.
-conclusions extend beyond that information.
Start with a general assertion and ask what specifically follows from that assertion
Logic -> are we logical?
what is validity and truth in syllogisms?
Validity: a syllogism is only valid if the conclusion follows logically from the premises.
This does not necessarily mean the conclusion is true
a conclusion can be valid but not true.
a conclusion can be true but not valid.
if a conclusion is valid, and the premises are true, then the conclusion is true.
what is the belief bias?
The tendency to judge arguments based on what one believes about their conclusions rather than on whether they use sound logic
how do we judge the validity of conditional syllogism?
Also have two premises and a conclusion
first premise has an "if...then..." form
more common in real world decisions
not strictly reasoning about category membership
premise 1: If p, then q
premise 2: p
what is the WASON FOUR CARD problem?
Each card has a letter on one side and a number on the other.
What is the minimum number of cards you need to turn over to test the rule: If there is a vowel on one side, then there is an even number on the other side.
The E and the 7: The E to verify the rule and the 7 to attempt to falsify the rule. Part of this is due to the tendency Less than 10% of people can correctly answer this questions when it is posed in an abstract way like above, but what if we make it more concrete?Each card has a letter on one side and a number on the other.
What is the minimum number of cards you need to turn over to test the rule: If there is a vowel on one side, then there is an even number on the other side.
The E and the 7: The E to verify the rule and the 7 to attempt to falsify the rule. Part of this is due to the tendency Less than 10% of people can correctly answer this questions when it is posed in an abstract way like above, but what if we make it more concrete?
what is the falsification principle?
To test a rule, it is necessary to look for situations that falsify that rule.
People choose cards that support the rule.
Need to check situation/card that could falsify the rule (the 7).
what is the concrete wason four card problem? how does that affect performance?
Each card has a beverage on one side and an age on the other.
What is the minimum number of people you need to check to ensure that no one under age is drinking alcohol.
When this problem is made more concrete, people are much better at solving it- about 75% of people can answer this version correctly.
Again, this highlights the fact that people are better when the problem has more real world significance (they are less likely to forget about trying to falsify the rule).
what is social exchange/evolution theory?
Social Exchange Theory:
People cooperate in a way that is beneficial to both people
We are especially good at detecting cheaters
what is inductive reasoning and when is it used?
Reasoning from specific cases to a general principle
Example: I didn't study last test and I got an A, so I don't need to study to do well.
Conclusion about what will happen, based on what has happened in the past
Used to make scientific discoveries
Hypotheses and general conclusions
Used in everyday life
Make a prediction about what will happen based on observation about what has happened in the past
how is the strength of argument determined?
what are heuristics? Advantages and disadvantages to using them?
Often use shortcuts in reasoning to come to a conclusion faster
Usually correct, but can lead to errors
what is the availability heuristic? what is an example?
A mental shortcut which judgements are based on information that is most easily brought to mind?
which job is more dangerous? Police officer v. janitor
what is the representative heuristic? what is an example?
a mental shortcut that involves judging whether something belongs in a given category on the basis of resemblance to other members of that category.
Linda bankteller problem. using a stereotype.
what are advantages and problems with expected utility theory?
Advantages for utility approach
-specific procedures to determine the "best choice"
Problems for utility approach
-Not necessarily money, people find value in other things
-Many decisions involve payoffs that cannot be calculated
-people are not always rational
-people don't expect always select optimal choice.
how can emotions affect decision making?
Emotions affect decisions
-Emotions that people predict that they will feel concerning an outcome
-Experienced at the time a decision is being made
what are the differences between being risk aversion v. risk taking? what determines which strategy we use?
Risk-aversion strategy used when problem is stated in terms of gains
Risk-taking strategy when problem is stated in terms of losses
what are frame effects? what are examples?
Peoples preferences differ depending on whether problems are framed in terms of gains or losses
Which would you choose?
$1.00/gallon, 5¢ discount for cash
$0.95/gallon, 5¢ surcharge for credit card
what are sunk costs?
Time, money, or other investment that is irretrievably spent, and therefore should not affect current decision making, yet it does.
what is justification of decisions? what are examples?
Showed that people delayed the decision, but knowing did not affect decision of those who knew.
Vacation package experiment.
what brain regions are involved in decision making?
Prefrontal cortex (PFC)
-Important for reasoning, planning, and making connections among different parts of a problem or story
-As reasoning problems become more complex, larger areas of the PFC are activated
what is pragmatic reasoning theory?
Pragmatic reasoning schema: thinking about cause and effect in the world as part of experiencing everyday life
what is a syllogism? what are the different types? how does whether they are abstract v. concrete affect our ability to understand them?
reasoning from general facts and principles to specific circumstances.
All birds are animals.
All animals eat food.
Therefore, all birds eat food.
If I study, then I get good grades.
I do not get good grades.
I do not study.
In general, abstract reasoning is more difficult
but, truth value can make it harder to judge validity
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