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18 terms

Chapter 26: Organizing the Persuasive Speech

STUDY
PLAY
three factors critical to consider when selecting an organizational pattern
arguments and evidence
target audience
specific speech purpose
Four types of potential audiences, as told by Herbert Simon
hostile
critical and conflicted
sympathetic
uniformed, less educated, apathetic
hostile audience
stress areas of agreement
address opposing views
consider the refutation pattern
wait until the end before asking the audience to act, if at all
critical and conflicted
present strong arguments and evidence
address opposing views
refutation pattern
sympathetic audience
use motivational stories
stress commonality
clearly state what you want them to think or do
uniformed, less educated, or apathetic audience
capture attention
stress credibility and likability
arrange points logically, perhaps using a topical pattern
specific speech purpose
how you want your audience to react to your message
problem-solution pattern of arrangement
organizing speech points to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and then to provide justification for a proposed solution
problem
solution
problem-cause-solution pattern
of arrangement
problem-solution pattern of arrangement only with more than two points. includes:
nature of the problem
reasons for the problem
unsatisfactory solutions
proposed solution
four point justification
a need or a problem
reasons for the problem
solution to the need or problem
evidence of the solution's feasibility
monroe's motivated sequence
attention
need
satisfaction
visualization
action
attention
addresses listeners' core concerns, making the speech highly relevant to them
need
isolate and describe the issue to be addressed
satisfaction
identify the solution
visualization
provide the audience with a vision of anticipated outcomes associated with the solution
action
make a direct request of the audience
comparative advantage pattern of arrangement
the most effective when your audience is already aware of the issue or problem and agrees that a need for a solution exists.
shows how your viewpoint or proposal is superior to one or more alternative viewpoints or proposals
refutation pattern of arrangement
addresses each main point and then refutes an opposing claim to your position.
best used when you are confident that the opposing argument is weak and vulnerable to attack