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Capacitance veins

vasa vasorum

"vessels of vessels"


specialized fenestrated capillaries

precapillary sphincter


medulla oblongata

vasomotor centers

vascular resistance


systolic pressure

peak blood pressure

diastolic pressure

minimum blood pressure


resistance vessels


carotid sinus

Frank-Starling principle

ventricular stretching


largest artery in the body

interatrial opening

foramen ovale


migrating blood clot

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart


the two-way exchange of substances between blood and body cells occur only through


large molecules such as peptides and proteins move into and out of the bloodstream by way of

fenestrated capillaries

the alteration of blood flow due to actionn of precapillary sphincters is


the blood vessels that collect blood from all tissues and organs and return it to the heart are the


blood is compartmentalized within the veins because of the presence of


the most important "factor" in vascular resistance is

the friction between the blood and vessel walls

the specialized exchange surfaces of the liver, bone marrow, and pituitary gland are the
a)continuous capillaries
b)fenestrated capillaries
d)arteriovenous anastosomes


Net hydrostatic pressure forces water......a capillary

out of capillaries and into the interstitial fluid

net osmotic pressure forces water.....a capillary

into a capillary from the interstitial fluid

when dehydration occurs , there is

-accelerated reabsorption of water in kidneys
-a recall of fluis
-an increase in the blood colloidal osmotic pressure

increased CO2 levels in tissues would promote

the "dilatation of precapillary sphincters" and more blood to flow into capillary bed

What are the primary forces that cause fluid to "move out" of a capillary and into the interstitial fluid at its "arterial end"?

primarily in response to Hydrostic pressure
35-25= 10mmHg = NFP (net filtration pressure)

What are the primary forces that cause fluid to "move into" a capillary from the interstitial fluid at its "venous end"?

primarily in response to osmotic pressure
18-25= -7 mmHg =NFP (net filtration pressure)

what two factors assist relatively low venous pressures in propelling blood toward the heart?

muscular compression (contraction of skeletal muscles) and respiratory pump

what two effects occur when the baroreceptors response to elevated blood pressure?

-reduce cardiac output
-peripheral vasodilation

what factors affect the activity of chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies?

changes in : carbon dioxide, oxygen or pH levels in blood and cerebrospinal fuid.

what age related changes takes place in the blood?

decrease hematocrit, formation of thrombin, valvular malfunctions

what age related changes takes place in the heart?

reduction in max. CO and changes in the activity of the nodal and conducting fibers, reduction in th elasticity of fibrous skeleton, progressive atherosclerosis and replacement of damaged cardiac muscle fibers by scar tissue.

what age related changes takes place in the blood vessels?

progressive in elasticity in arterial walls, deposition of calcium salts, formation of thrombi at atherosclerosis plaques.

Blood normally flows into capillary bed from

a metarteriole

plasma solutes enter the tissue fluid most easily from

fenestrated capillaries

the velocity of blood flow decreases if

viscosity increases

in a case where the interstitial hydrostatic pressure is negative , the only force causing capillaries to reabsorb fluid is:
a)colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
b)colloid osmotic pressure of the tissue fluid

colloid osmotic pressure of the "blood"

Intestinal blood flows to the liver by way of

the hepatic portal system

the difference between the colloid osmotic pressure of blood and that of the tissue fluid is called.......

oncotic pressure

The pressure sensors in the major arteries near the head are called.....


True or False: In some circulatory pathways, blood can get from an artery to a vein without going through capillaries


True or False: Arteries have a series of valves that ensure a one-way flow of blood


True or False: If the radius of a blood vessel doubles and all other factors remain the same, blood flow through that vessel also doubles


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