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65 terms

Social Psych Final Exam Ch. 11-13

STUDY
PLAY
Conflict is defined as
perceived incompatibility of actions or goals
The occurrence of conflict in any relationship
can stimulate improved human relations
The outcome of creatively managed conflict is
peace
Pursuing one's self-interest to the collective detriment of one's community or society is the central pattern in
a social dilemma
Despite official government warnings of a severe water shortage, most citizens fail to conserve in the belief that their personal water consumption will have little effect on the community's total water supply. The eventual depletion of the community's water resources provides an example of
the tragedy of the commons
In both the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Commons Dilemma, people are tempted to explain their own behavior ___ and other's behavior ____.
Situationally; dispositionally
Which of the following is an example of a non-zero-sum game?
Both the Prisoner's and the Commons Dilemmas
One potential way to prevent conflict is to
Avoid making excess regulations
According to research, it seems that just knowing about the dire consequences of noncooperation in a social dilemma
has little real effect on people's behavior
At the beginning of 2000, people were aware that global warming was already occurring, yet they were also buying gas-slurping SUVs in record numbers. This is an example of
how knowing good does not always lead to doing good
Mio and her colleagues found that after reading about the commons dilemma, theater patrons
littered less
Before they married, Melinda and Michael, who are both employed full time and collect the same pay, agreed to share equally in routine household tasks such as cleaning and grocery shopping. In reality, Melinda is now doing about 80% if the household work. This situation is an example of
an inequitable relationship
What does your text refer to as the "golden rule" of social justice?
Whoever has the gold makes the rules.
Some noncapitalist cultures define justice not as equity but as
either equality or the fulfillment of a need
According to Hatfield, Walster, and Berscheid, when people feel exploited they can react to it with various responses EXCEPT
joining the unexploited group
The reciprocal views that parties in conflict often hold of one another are referred to as
mirror-image perceptions
When two sides have clashing perceptions, at least one of them is misperceiving the other, and when that is the case, according to Bronfenbrenner, it is characteristic of such images that they are
self-confirming
John believes that he is hardworking and that his wife Rachel is lazy. Rachel believes that she is hardworking and that John is lazy. This is an example of
mirror-image perception
For blacks, the most noticeable consequences of desegregated schooling is
the increased likelihood of living and working in integreated settings.
The U.S. Supreme Court's 2003 decision that racial diversity may be a criterion in admissions to colleges and universities was
based on research findings that revealed that racial diversity in the classroom has positive consequences
The fact that 51% of Americans approved of President Bush's performance on Sept. 10, 2001, and 90% of Americans approved of President Bush's performance on Sept. 11, 2001 is an example of
cohesiveness as a result of a common external threat
A goal that overrides people's differences from one another is called a
superordinate goal
According to Slavin, a practical, proven method for implementing contact theory in the desegregated classroom is
peer support groups
Aronson's jigsaw technique involved having elementary school children
form academically and racially diverse groups, with each member of the group becoming an expert in one area
Studies from 11 countries show adolescents have more positive peer relationships and may achieve more when working ___, rather than ____.
Cooperatively; competitively
According to Phinney, someone who identifies with both his or her ethnic culture and the larger culture is said to have a ____ identity.
bicultural
Triandis reported that ____ immigrants felt more comfortable identifying with their ethnicity than ____ immigrants.
grandchildren of; second-generation
____ occurs when a neutral 3rd party studies a conflict and imposes a settlement.
Arbitration
Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Osgood's GRIT strategy?
Build up first-strike capability to negotiate from a position of strength.
The communitarian synthesis emphasizes
both individualist and collectivist values.
Functional distance refers to
how often people's paths cross
The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more after repeated exposure to them is referred to as
the mere exposure effect
You feel obligated to vote in the next election, especially because you are usually the first one to complain about the incumbent president. However, you have not had the time to research the positions taken by the candidates. Social psychologists would confidently predict that you are likely to choose the candidate
whose name you have heard most often.
An example of implicit egotism is our tendency to
like the familiar
____ rank attractiveness as important in a mate, while ___ assign importance to honesty, humor, and dependability.
Men; women
The contrast effect of feeling less attractive after viewing a super attractive person applies to our self-perceptions, especially for
women
According to the text, the relationship between the extent to which we are in love with someone and how physically attractive we find that person to be is
positive
At a party, Ellie meets Rob and Blake. The three get involved in a philosophical discussion that lasts through the evening. By the end of the evening, Ellie has discovered that she and Blake see things eye-to-eye, whereas she and Rob see things differently. All else being equal, Ellie will probably like
Blake better
Spouses are more likely than random paired people to share common attitudes, beliefs, and values. The ____ the similarity, the ____ they are.
greater; happier
The relationship between mimicry and rapport is
positive
The tendency for opposites to mate or marry
has never been reliably demonstrated.
According to Elliot Aronson, as a relationship ripens toward greater intimacy, what becomes increasingly important is _____
authenticity
In comparison to women, men fall in love more ____ and out of love more ____
readily; slowly
Which adult attachment style is marked by individuals being less invested in relationships and more likely to engage in one-night stands?
dismissive
When benefits are proportional to contributions in a relationship,
equity exists.
Self-disclosure involves
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
Individualistic cultures have ____ divorce rates than communal cultures.
higher
Before agreeing to help out at the local homeless shelter, Sharon weighs the costs and benefits of doing so. This strategy can be predicted by the
social-exchange theory
According to the social-exchange theory, the rewards that motivate helping are
internal or external
A major weakness of the social-exchange theory is that it
easily degenerates into explaining-by-naming
Helping ____ a bad mood and ____ a good mood.
softens; sustains
Mr. Lemming's neighbors mowed his lawn, but he was too sick and weak to reciprocate. We can predict that Mr. Lemming may feel
demeaned because he cannot reciprocate
Ian is from England, Dan is from America, and Tam is from India. Which one of these people is most likely to support and act on the norm of social responsibility?
Tam
In which of the following countries is the norm of social responsibility supported most strongly?
India
A classmate of Bianca's wants to borrow notes to study for an upcoming exam. Research suggests that Bianca will most likely agree if the classmate says she needs the notes because she
has been absent due to illness
____ are twice as likely as ____ to seek medical and psychiatric help.
Women; men
The idea that altruism towards one's close relatives enhances the survival of mutually shared genes is referred to as
kin selection
Latane and Darley had university students complete questionnaires in a small room, and then had smoke pour into the room from a wall vent. Students who were working ____ tended to notice the smoke in ____.
alone; less than 5 seconds
The fact that a person is less likely to help in an emergency when other people are present is called
the bystander effect
In a study by Latane and Rodin, a female experimenter apparently fell and hurt her ankle. When pairs of strangers confronted the emergency, what percentage offered help?
40%
Altruism researcher Daniel Batson reported that empathy-induced altruism
is always helpful
Research evidence indicates that prosocial models of helping
promote altruism in the observers
In an experiment of the Good Samaritan situation, Darley and Batson studied the helpfulness of Princeton seminarians in order to assess whether helping behavior was influenced by
time pressures
Keisha is stopped on the street by a panhandler. She is most likely to give money if
she just had her picture taken
Regarding people who are within one's circle of moral concern is called
moral inclusion