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American Revolution Final

Terms in this set (84)

Dec 7, 1776
The first crossing Dec 7, 1776: Washington is running from Howe and takes his whole army across the Delaware. Chaos and full retreat.
By Dec 14th: he has already decided that he's going to attack again in new jersey.
Meanwhile, the british go into winter quarters. 17 separate outposts around new jersey. Giving Washington can attempt hitting one at a time. Trenton is the first. The hessians are stationed there.
Also the enlistments were almost up so he had to act soon, he gets reinforcements through Lee and Gates.
Lee gets captured, he was washington's second in command, but he was ignoring Washington. So once he's captured Washington gets his army.
Gates seemed to be siding with lee but ends up siding with Washington.
Dec 25th 1776: a winter norester come in out of nowhere, once the crossing is already unway. It takes them until 4 am to get over there. It's supposed to be three pronged attack 2 of the three prongs cannot get across the river.
The first men across the river have a vendetta against the hessians and attack without orders. Washington gets mad but it ended up being good luck because the hessians had found out through spies that washignton was coming and they thought this was their attack and that the storm was too bad so that they lowered their guard. Then Washington attacked.
Myth:
He did not plan for Christmas, he was not banking on them being drunk. His men were actually drunk after they won!
One of the prongs think Washington is still in jersey, but he wasn't. so Washington decides to go back. He needed his men to reenlist thought. A speech and some cash convinces them for 6 more weeks.
His treason: Giving West Point over without a fight and get George Washington as prisoner
In return he would become a general in the british army and get over $1,000,000 modern money into it.
Someone happened to stop the british spy holding the last of the plans. So the plot was exposed at the last minute. Nothing goes down but benedict Arnold he runs to the british for safety.
The problem with this is that he was the best the americans had. He was in the invasion of candada that failed. He turned back a british invasion at valcor island from Canada. He was the archetetic of the surrender at Saratoga. Didn't get credit and he was terribly wounded for life.
Grievances:
The civilians didn't support them: they were not sacrificing for the win of the war
He would never be promoted by congress even though they wanted to because the quota was filled.
Congress caves and gives him the promotion but not the seniority
An American patriot gave his life for the cause, a suffering family, and congress needed to give money to take care of the family and they refused to.
Arnold thought that they should have a pension for life if they can't be paid now. Congress says no way. It's more ideological then financial. It would mean theres a standing army.
Personal crusade vs. collective cooperative response.
The treason could be looked at as a political protest. He felt the American cause is so hypocrytical that it might as well be a part of the british empire. It was supposed to rally the people to defect people back to the british side, which would heal up the divide and end the revolution and reconcile with the mother country.
It back fired and made the call for the American cause and people start sacrificing.
Many African americans saw the war as an opportunity to get their freedom and they acted accordingly. Every state but south Carolina and Georgia included slaves in their troops.
Most African American soldiers fight with the british. They wear green coats because that was the color of the jackets of americans fighting for the british.
George Washington originally doesn't want slaves to fight for his army, but he is forced into it because he can't afford to lose the manpower.
Seeing the fighting, George Washington decides to shed his racism and have an integrated army, which wouldn't happen again until Korean war.
½ slaves in goeriga flee, ¼ south Carolina flee to the british. Biggest slave rebellion in American history.
British brought them to Canada, some went back to Africa. Sierra Leone founded by british and run away slaves.
Some of the white men wanted to do something about the hypocracy. All northern states abolished slavery. It was easy of them to do because they didn't need to have slaves, and had few.
The upper south and the lower south: Delaware Maryland viriginia slavery begins to be seen as a necessary evil that they didn't know how to get rid of. They passed manumission laws that allowed masters to free their slaves if they wanted to. (save money and purchase their freedom or freed slaves in their wills)

Lower south: always viewed as a positive good. B

Before the revolution there isn't any freed blacks.
Philadelphia has the biggest freed black group in America. In the 19th century. But racism persists. Segregation: a physical separation of the races into different spaces. Comes about when slavery is coming to an end.
Geography: western frontier
Ethnicity: the more English you were, the less loyal you were. The opposite is also true. African americans, Indians, the dutch in NY, germans in Penn, Scots-Irish in the south.
Religion: quakers tended to be loyalists, Baptists, Methodists, presbeterians were minorities but were in favor of the rev
Class/ Occupation: many were wealthy (like the royal office holders), but really came from everywhere
Age: 45 or older (rev 45 or younger).
Pattern: a formula for being a tory: minority groups within America, more afraid of fellow Americans then the british, "the enemy of my enemy is my friend"
How many loyalists were there during the revolution: 15% of the American population (375,000). 35% was revolutionary and 50% were neutral. 2.5 million is the population of the colonies going into the revolution.
Why didn't the loyalists have more of an impact? Probably simply because they were made up of the minority groups and so they really didn't have anything in common with each other. There were ethnic, religion, class, and language barriers that made a lot of them hate each other.
For the tories to have accomplished something they would have had to unite.
Try to lie low and fly under the radar. For many that works, but not for the office holders. Many were terrorized. To avoid facing this, they fled the country. 20% did that. They left their home behinds. And the state governments confiscated their property. This made land available to many middle class citizens, ended up with a little bit of a story estate
George Washington (He was not a deist
Deist: god does not believe in God interfereing with daily lives, he set everything up and just let it go.
Washington did believe that he intervenes.
He saw the American revolution victory as help from god so proof.
Sometimes Washington is called a "warm" deist.
Washington never used the name God. He used term like supreme being, providence, the divine author
God is inscruitable, he works in mysterious way and you cannot figure it out.
God helps those who help themselves and deserve to be helped. justifies the American revolution.
George Washington never said whether or not he was a chrisitian and he never explained his religious views. A poilitical decision that was very wise.
The more you say about religious views, the more you anger those who disagree with you
"Washington has the gift of silence" -Adams
Washington was a lifelong member of the Anglican church. He was on the board of directors for his church. He attended service once a month, donated money, and frequently quoted the bible.
Washington did not believe that Christ was the son of God. Instead that he was a real man, and a prophet put to death as a heritic. He believed that Christ had been buried alive. Washington feared being buried alive. He wrote in his will not to close his tomb until he was dead 3 days.
Washington believed in an afterlife, but not a chrisitian one. It was not heaven. He believed that it was more like hades. A dark spirit world.
When he died he never administered last rites. There was never any proof that he prayed. He never took communion and left after the sermon.
A man of the enlightenment, and a stoic philosopher. Doing good is just the right thing to do.

His views on church and state: religion had led to countless wars. He wanted American religious diversity to be a source of strength and unity. He reached out to minority groups in letter and person. And he let them know they were considered free American citizens. An asylum for those fleeing from persecution.
Government could condone religion, but not a specific faith. Religion to promote national morality and harmony.
and John Adams in the middle.
Rodger Sherman = accomodationist (Drafted the dec of independence
A delegate at the constitutional convention.
Great compromise between the big states and the little states.
Calvinism shaped the political views of Rodger Sherman. Shaped a a lot of different states
Reform: humans are created in the image of God. Common good and individual rights. People could overthrow tyrannical rulers. Bible very popular.
Believed that church and state should be equal. Public happiness and morality
"the act of securing the right of conscience" you must attend a Christian church on Sunday. Tax money to churches. Laaw upheld the sabath. Families must have a bible at home.
Needed to be Christian to hold office.
A multiple establishment: the government supports all of Christianity.)