Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
American Revolution Final
Terms in this set (84)
After Lexington and concord the new England milita put themselves around the hills of boston
British attack, they should have flank attacked, but they did a frontal attack up the hill. It took them 3 times, and the only reason they took it was because the americans ran out of ammunition, 900 british dead
William Howe british: "a few more victories like this and we will win the war"
The british did lose dr. warren
Burning of Falmouth
british naval attach that ended in a landing and burning of the town.
2nd continental congress creates continental navy to combat
Lord Dunmore's proclamation
1775 example of total war
slaves turn against your masters, kill them, and join the british for freedom: total war.
General William Howe
it's 1776 and we should try limited war
crush the continental army, he wanted to fight, but also woo the colonists back into the empire. It's a hard sell after you've burned towns and urged the slaves to revolt
evacuation of boston
Knox needed to get artillery from Fort Ticonderoga to Boston 60 tons of artillery 300 miles.
Washington placed the artillery around the hills of boston. The britsh are forced to evacuate.
Howe decides to shift the war to middle colonies. He wanted to fight in jersey and ny because they were the most reluctant to declare independence
He was somewhat right, there were many loyalists, but no where near a majority.
Battles of Long Island and Manhattan
Howe arrives in Long Island with 30,000 men
Washington is in manhattan with 20,000 men
Washington holds a counsel of war, and foolishly accepts the advice to split the army, half go to Long Island, but the british surprised them, and it turned into hand to hand combat, but british had the bayonets, it was bloody, but howe allowed the americans to evacuate to manhattan.
The man who saved the army was John Glover.
Howe was okay with the men escaping because he thought that the war was almost over, don't create any unfixable wounds. He pushes the continental army out of manhattan, Howe chases the army from new jersey to penn.
Dec 7, 1776
The first crossing Dec 7, 1776: Washington is running from Howe and takes his whole army across the Delaware. Chaos and full retreat.
By Dec 14th: he has already decided that he's going to attack again in new jersey.
Meanwhile, the british go into winter quarters. 17 separate outposts around new jersey. Giving Washington can attempt hitting one at a time. Trenton is the first. The hessians are stationed there.
Also the enlistments were almost up so he had to act soon, he gets reinforcements through Lee and Gates.
Lee gets captured, he was washington's second in command, but he was ignoring Washington. So once he's captured Washington gets his army.
Gates seemed to be siding with lee but ends up siding with Washington.
Dec 25th 1776: a winter norester come in out of nowhere, once the crossing is already unway. It takes them until 4 am to get over there. It's supposed to be three pronged attack 2 of the three prongs cannot get across the river.
The first men across the river have a vendetta against the hessians and attack without orders. Washington gets mad but it ended up being good luck because the hessians had found out through spies that washignton was coming and they thought this was their attack and that the storm was too bad so that they lowered their guard. Then Washington attacked.
He did not plan for Christmas, he was not banking on them being drunk. His men were actually drunk after they won!
One of the prongs think Washington is still in jersey, but he wasn't. so Washington decides to go back. He needed his men to reenlist thought. A speech and some cash convinces them for 6 more weeks.
The first battle of trenton
the battle that ensues directly after the crossing of the Delaware
second battle of trenton
Jan 2nd 1777
Cornwallis basically has washinton pinned down and expects to end the war in the morning, but washinton escapes in the night.
ends in an american victory
battle of princeton
Jan 3rd 1777
washington slips out from trenton and attacks another outpost near princeton
Washington considers going to a fourth at new Brunswick, but he decides to go into winter quarters.
The british now have to leave their outposts. Anyone who swore the loyalty back to the crown, learns a lesson, they britsh are eventually going to leave and they'll be hung out to dry.
campaign of 1777
return to total war.
General Burgoyne comes out of Canada, Howe should have met him but instead he decided to get to Philadelphia and take it.
This was stupid, but so was the way he got it. He used boats and went the long way around, but he was eliminating his numerical advantage.
Cold reception of british in penn, so they burn farms...so now we've returned to total war...they can't make up their minds.
battle of brandywine
the British take philly
the milita keeps cutting his supply line off. He has to send off foraging expidentions, but the milita stops those too. He keeps losing men. Washington was able to send men in against Burgoyne.
He was a political general, carried his furniture and china with him.
battle of germantown
October 4th 1777
washington is unable to regain philadelphia. a confused battle, a foggy day.
surrender at saratoga
17 October 1777
Burgoyne is forced to surrender
the french enter the war.
The americans were able to tie down the british at two different fronts. Germantown and Saratoga simultaneously gets the French into the war. They had already been giving the Americans most of their weapons. The French sign the French Alliance
the french alliance
The french promise more than just arms to the americans.
the war is now a word war because it has become the US, France, Spain, and the Netherlands against Britain
valley forge: winter 1777-1778
Encampment in the shape of a triangle
A series of defensive lines laid out by a French engineer, that goes all the way back to a far point at which washignton's headquarters is located. The troops at the last line of defense were all virigians, the men that the Washington trusted the most.
martha washington always did an awesome job at the winter encampments.
Battle of monmouth
right after valley forge, equal on the sides, equal terrain, and the americans win. Shows the repercussions of the training under von steuben. At first the American army started to retreat, Washington tried to rally the troops. Usually they ignore him. But this time, they listened and won. There was probably bonding at valley forge
Lee fails in a huge way. he gets court martial for going against the commander in chief and thrown out
last big battle in the north. the men's numbers slip below 6,000 in 1778
baron von steuben
found by Ben Franklin
Von Stuben: Gave the army the European formations. He trained an entire army in one winter. He took 100 men until they knew the formations perfectly and then these men trained the rest of the army.
artist, german immigrant to the us, inspired by 1848 german revolutions, went home and fought for his country. Washington Crossing the Delaware was meant to show triumph for the revolutions of 1848, but because they were failing he changed the tone.
The Southern Strategy
British became afraid they would lose their entire empire because it's now a World War.
Growing disscent at home in England. They now need quick victories.
Lord North reassesses the war, would cut his losses and pursue a new strategy: shift the war to the south, and focus on trying to keep the southern colonies in the empire (would continue til the end of the war)
Logic: the southern colonies were more valuable because they produced the cash crops, there was a large group of people in the south who would be natural loyalists (slaves). Raising the question would I rather lose the war or my slaves?
Capture of Charles Town
Worst loss for the americans during the war.
General Clinton comes in takes charles town adna whole army in the south, then he turns the command of the south over to cornwallis.
Clinton returns to the north where he could pin Washington down so he couldn't go down south and interfere.
The british tried to stamp out the rebellion and put loyalists in charge and move north from georigia upwards.
what the british had not accounted for. It was a banding together of the colonists.
battle of camden
gates threw together a southern army quickly, but they are destroyed or taken at this battle.
he put milita men against seasoned redcoats.
Battle of king's mountain
an American milita army destroys an American loyalist armies
Gurillas would torture and kill instead of take prisoners, it became an excuse to be a thief. Women and children were hurt.
commanded the new american army in the south after gates
becomes washington's second in command.
washington sent him to the south so he could take on cornwallis.
which means that the two second in commands are now battling it out in the south
he brings in another piece into the southern army. and then divides it and gives it to daniel morgan
general daniel morgan
commands the second half of the southern army.
best tacticle general in the war.
battle of cowpens
1781 daniel morgan defears banister trarilton had an army with half raw militia. the americans win.
it was really against the american loyalists.
battle of guilford court house
Cornwallis wins but basically lost half his men. Pyrrhic victory. (win but heavy casulities that it might as well have been a defeat.
About his defeat: we get beat, rise, and fight again. Implies that we are being stubbonrn, but really he was doing an amazing job and outdoing Cornwallis.
invasion of virginia
after guilford court house
cornwallis moves down to viriginia.
jefferson was the governor
cornwallis tries to take him but he was warned at the last minute. his term was running out so he simply stopped governing.
a lot of people were mad about this and thought he was being a coward, but he felt he'd be acting like a tyrannt.
yorktown campaign and surrender
Clinton acknowledges that the southern strategy has failed
so he tells cornwallis to go to yorktown and try and get down and attack philadelphia again.
October 19th, 1781
the americans win, cornwallis is forced to surender, and the world turned upside down.
the beginning of the end, led by lafayette and hamilton
His treason: Giving West Point over without a fight and get George Washington as prisoner
In return he would become a general in the british army and get over $1,000,000 modern money into it.
Someone happened to stop the british spy holding the last of the plans. So the plot was exposed at the last minute. Nothing goes down but benedict Arnold he runs to the british for safety.
The problem with this is that he was the best the americans had. He was in the invasion of candada that failed. He turned back a british invasion at valcor island from Canada. He was the archetetic of the surrender at Saratoga. Didn't get credit and he was terribly wounded for life.
The civilians didn't support them: they were not sacrificing for the win of the war
He would never be promoted by congress even though they wanted to because the quota was filled.
Congress caves and gives him the promotion but not the seniority
An American patriot gave his life for the cause, a suffering family, and congress needed to give money to take care of the family and they refused to.
Arnold thought that they should have a pension for life if they can't be paid now. Congress says no way. It's more ideological then financial. It would mean theres a standing army.
Personal crusade vs. collective cooperative response.
The treason could be looked at as a political protest. He felt the American cause is so hypocrytical that it might as well be a part of the british empire. It was supposed to rally the people to defect people back to the british side, which would heal up the divide and end the revolution and reconcile with the mother country.
It back fired and made the call for the American cause and people start sacrificing.
the great CT hero. who said "I regret that I have but one life to give for my country"
was hanged for his spying
such an inspiration
commander of french aide army. french fleet joins the americans in a now new campagin to keep clinton from new york.
he is the one that convinces washington to go south.
the revolution for women
their status may have even gotten worse
although they asked for divorce more. independence from tyrannical husbands. many women applied the ideas of the revolution in a way that men did not anticipate.
conservative women reformers make the bigger difference.
mythical camp follower who supposedly brought the men water in a perfect pitcher from a well and also picked up arms to fight when her husband fell.
nope. not even slightly true.
Daughters of Liberty
Ester Reed: worked for money, clothes, and sewed goods for the army
believed that all the new ideals should include women. fought her husband on it.
the idea that women need to be educated to become better mothers. they can't raise good citiziens if they aren't informed. this starts to close the literacy gap between men and women.
the revolution for african americans
Many African americans saw the war as an opportunity to get their freedom and they acted accordingly. Every state but south Carolina and Georgia included slaves in their troops.
Most African American soldiers fight with the british. They wear green coats because that was the color of the jackets of americans fighting for the british.
George Washington originally doesn't want slaves to fight for his army, but he is forced into it because he can't afford to lose the manpower.
Seeing the fighting, George Washington decides to shed his racism and have an integrated army, which wouldn't happen again until Korean war.
½ slaves in goeriga flee, ¼ south Carolina flee to the british. Biggest slave rebellion in American history.
British brought them to Canada, some went back to Africa. Sierra Leone founded by british and run away slaves.
Some of the white men wanted to do something about the hypocracy. All northern states abolished slavery. It was easy of them to do because they didn't need to have slaves, and had few.
The upper south and the lower south: Delaware Maryland viriginia slavery begins to be seen as a necessary evil that they didn't know how to get rid of. They passed manumission laws that allowed masters to free their slaves if they wanted to. (save money and purchase their freedom or freed slaves in their wills)
Lower south: always viewed as a positive good. B
Before the revolution there isn't any freed blacks.
Philadelphia has the biggest freed black group in America. In the 19th century. But racism persists. Segregation: a physical separation of the races into different spaces. Comes about when slavery is coming to an end.
A fierce abolitionist who died trying to fight for abolishing slavery after the end of the revolution in the south.
a good friend of Alexander hamilton
Geography: western frontier
Ethnicity: the more English you were, the less loyal you were. The opposite is also true. African americans, Indians, the dutch in NY, germans in Penn, Scots-Irish in the south.
Religion: quakers tended to be loyalists, Baptists, Methodists, presbeterians were minorities but were in favor of the rev
Class/ Occupation: many were wealthy (like the royal office holders), but really came from everywhere
Age: 45 or older (rev 45 or younger).
Pattern: a formula for being a tory: minority groups within America, more afraid of fellow Americans then the british, "the enemy of my enemy is my friend"
How many loyalists were there during the revolution: 15% of the American population (375,000). 35% was revolutionary and 50% were neutral. 2.5 million is the population of the colonies going into the revolution.
Why didn't the loyalists have more of an impact? Probably simply because they were made up of the minority groups and so they really didn't have anything in common with each other. There were ethnic, religion, class, and language barriers that made a lot of them hate each other.
For the tories to have accomplished something they would have had to unite.
Try to lie low and fly under the radar. For many that works, but not for the office holders. Many were terrorized. To avoid facing this, they fled the country. 20% did that. They left their home behinds. And the state governments confiscated their property. This made land available to many middle class citizens, ended up with a little bit of a story estate
"Indians" and the revolution
The biggest native American war in American history.
Some tribes stayed allied with the united states but most went with the british.
Diplomacy. They were nations allied to great britian
Independent nations was how they saw themselves
1790-1791 military expeditions sent out to wipe out the native americans, but they eneded up getting whipped out themselves.
It isn't until 1794 in the battle of fallen timbers that they conquered them.
The Indians of the south west: too powerful for military force, instead give up your way of life, try to farm instead so it takes up less land and you can give up the excess land to the united states. Jackson will be the one who eventually remove them to Oklahoma in trail of tears.
Extermination or civilization (become americans)
: 4,500 men to destroy the land and villiages and scorched earth
200 men, "protecting" and getting rid of british troops, but the native americans got in the way sometimes. Clark's tells the story we want to hear.
secret mission in france, a private merchant conducting private business, through a fake private company the French sent the arms to America before the declaration of independence
ben franklin as minister to france
The French know who he is already, so he was the prime choice. He was so famous because of his experiments.
Joined by John Adams (a diplomat who isn't very diplomatic) he's just a cranky guy who wants his way :P
Adams felt that Franklin was too friendly with the French, he feared that the French wanted to add the colonies to their empire.
He also feared that franklin wouldn't keep secrets.
french alliance, 1778
Get back at England after the 7years war
Restore the balance of power
A weakened british empire
They hesitate do not want them to make up, do not want to back a lost cause.
Surrender at Saratoga and Germantown makes the French believe that they are going through with this for real.
A new war: from a colonial rebellion to a world war.
In the end the alliance did not work out as well as they had hoped: they probably weakened themselves setting up for the French Revolution.
peace of paris
1782 let the colonies go.
Peace negotiating: don't make any decisions without the French involved.
The british were hoping to break up the alliances so they were very generous.
France and Spain became worried that the USA would become too powerful.
The diplomats did not follow their instructions and negotiated with britian behind the back of the French.
The French were stunned this had happened. And that the us had done so well.
The united states gets more than the orginially 13 colonies
American diplomacy was so successful because they took advantage of the European balance of power.
private yankee doodle
history started looking at the everyday life of the solider.
Solider motivation: why enlist in the first place? Why do you stay and fight.
Enlistment: an army of citizen soldiers. Overwlemingly volunteers.
They fought for equality, to chastise the britsh
Life liberty property
Equilty of opperunity. To be as good as any man.
Many felt they were fighting for the future of humanity.
We have it in our power to make the world anew.
Poverty was another reason to enlist. Lowest socio-economic classes. Poor men, who didn't have anything. Career for many.
Escapism/ Adventure: privateer = legalize piracyWhy fight?
A peer pressure. They are organized by town. If there are any people you're going to help on the battle field, these are the people.
It's a problem because a town could get wiped out.
The last time this happens is the civil
Now called primary group cohesion. You'd rather die in battle then die as a coward or have a friend die because you havn't reached out.
Not for money, but the for the men around you.
the separation of church and state
Neutral stance on religion. There is no single church, it mean various denominations. There is no single state, it means all levels of government. Some of the most sacred principles of the revolution.
9 of the 13 colonies had an established religion which means an officially government sanctioned religion, and it is endorsed, supports financially. Everyone had to pay taxes to support that church.
Your civil rights are restricted in other ways: can't hold office, can't vote.
They were literally guilty of religious tyranny.
Ideology of the revolution applied to religion.
declaration of rights
a model for all following bill of rights
article 16 protects freedom of religion
religious assessment bill
1785. all virginians would pay a tax that would go toward all christian religions (could this be considered a freedom of religion?)
you needed public morality, which would mean you need religion, so the government should support it.
memorial and remonstrance against religious assessment
James Madison disagreed with the majority. he believed that freedom of religion also means freedom from religion it flourishes better when they're separate. Government support of religion is harmful to religion: because it becomes weak depending on the government. It makes the government excessive.
virigina statute for religious freedom
1786 Thomas Jefferson
Guaranteed full religious liberty. Just a law. Not a part of virginia's constitution. He considered it to be his second greatest accomplishment
the first amendement
the US constitution simply states that there will not be a religion test for holding office, but the first amendement, written by James madion: the establishment of religion and no prohibiting the free exercise
"no state shall" proposal
Madison believes that individual liberty threats came from the state governments and not from federal government.
he tried to stop the states from making their own decisions but these proposals didnt work.
Jefferson (Believed that kings and aristocrats had teamed up with ministers and they had worked together to oppress the people.
Instead of imprisoning the mind, it should liberate the mind.
A private matter between an individual and their maker.
Federal government should stay out of religion. Jefferson was like this goes against the first amendment.
"There must be a wall between church and state"
The Jefferson Bible: the moral teachings of Jesus (he did not believe in him as divine, but as a great teacher)
Hamilton called him an atheist. He isn't.
University of Virginia first not to be founded by a religious group.
George Washington (He was not a deist
Deist: god does not believe in God interfereing with daily lives, he set everything up and just let it go.
Washington did believe that he intervenes.
He saw the American revolution victory as help from god so proof.
Sometimes Washington is called a "warm" deist.
Washington never used the name God. He used term like supreme being, providence, the divine author
God is inscruitable, he works in mysterious way and you cannot figure it out.
God helps those who help themselves and deserve to be helped. justifies the American revolution.
George Washington never said whether or not he was a chrisitian and he never explained his religious views. A poilitical decision that was very wise.
The more you say about religious views, the more you anger those who disagree with you
"Washington has the gift of silence" -Adams
Washington was a lifelong member of the Anglican church. He was on the board of directors for his church. He attended service once a month, donated money, and frequently quoted the bible.
Washington did not believe that Christ was the son of God. Instead that he was a real man, and a prophet put to death as a heritic. He believed that Christ had been buried alive. Washington feared being buried alive. He wrote in his will not to close his tomb until he was dead 3 days.
Washington believed in an afterlife, but not a chrisitian one. It was not heaven. He believed that it was more like hades. A dark spirit world.
When he died he never administered last rites. There was never any proof that he prayed. He never took communion and left after the sermon.
A man of the enlightenment, and a stoic philosopher. Doing good is just the right thing to do.
His views on church and state: religion had led to countless wars. He wanted American religious diversity to be a source of strength and unity. He reached out to minority groups in letter and person. And he let them know they were considered free American citizens. An asylum for those fleeing from persecution.
Government could condone religion, but not a specific faith. Religion to promote national morality and harmony.
and John Adams in the middle.
Rodger Sherman = accomodationist (Drafted the dec of independence
A delegate at the constitutional convention.
Great compromise between the big states and the little states.
Calvinism shaped the political views of Rodger Sherman. Shaped a a lot of different states
Reform: humans are created in the image of God. Common good and individual rights. People could overthrow tyrannical rulers. Bible very popular.
Believed that church and state should be equal. Public happiness and morality
"the act of securing the right of conscience" you must attend a Christian church on Sunday. Tax money to churches. Laaw upheld the sabath. Families must have a bible at home.
Needed to be Christian to hold office.
A multiple establishment: the government supports all of Christianity.)
the political revolution
they created a republic
royal govenors are thrown out
republican form of government and state consitutions where every single one is different
penn creates a bicameral legislator. no more aristocarcy
a plural executive was thought about, a board of govenors so they wouldn't become tyrants
adherence to a system of constitutional government
bound by the law of how it will run
the constitution is always supreme
Mass. held the first for their state constitution.
a group of delegates coming together to decide what to do about the state or federal constitution
the articles of confederation
the real power lied in the state governments
only 1 branch all rolled into one.
president of the congress was most important (like the speaker of the house)
13 tables where each delegat for each state votes together for the whole state. (great for the small states).
a rebellion of debtors and loyalists is a MYTH
really revolutionaries and Daniel Shays was one of the wealthiest men in the community
they didn't want a wealthy elite to run the state.
shays wanted it to be more fair, have more representation, and be more democratic (more positions, more elextions, lower property rule) and tax reform.
they tried peaceful measure first, but then turned militant, esp when the govenor calls out the state militia to respond but they side with the shayites instead.
changed their goal from costitutional reform to over throwing the governement.
but they fail and the leaders flee to vermont after the BATTLE OF PETTERSHAM
shays rebellion fails.
but it gets the ball rolling for a new constitution and the taxes did go down when John Hancock becomes govenor
governor james bowdoin
mass man who was the president of the first state constitutional convention.
lost in 1780 to john hancock but when hancock resigned, he got his job in 1785. his strict financial plan to recouperate after the debts in mass is one of the leading factors for shays rebellion. he personally financed the milita men who put it down, and in 1787 he lost the election to john hancock again.
a major general, ended up being washington's right hand man. received the surrender at yorktown.
was also present at saratoga and charles town, which were all surrenders.
calls a prince in prussia to be the new american king because of shays rebellion
the federal convention
May 25-September 17th, 1787
framing the constitution
All the delegates wanted to strengthen the federal government, majority to rule, and minority to be protect. Religious minorities, property minorities, but not racial minorities. Separate judicial branches, separate legistaltive branches.
father of the constitution
best prepared delegate there. He was 36 but with years of experience. Madison did his hw before the convention. He studied the fates of republics in history. He said they failed because their central governments weren't nearly strong enough
He made the viriginia plan, which turned out to be the first draft of the constitution: gets rid of a government of states, but operated directly on the American people. The federal government interacted with the American people. With states as intermidaries
The notes he took let us know exactly what happened at the convention. He did not allow these to be published until he was dead, and he was the last to survive.
gets rid of a government of states, but operated directly on the American people
Conflicts and compromises in the constitution
the fight between federalists and antifederalists:
how much should the government do?
F: a lot
A: a little
What branch of government should do it?
What level of government should do it?
the great compromise: CT (two houses in congress)
historian. wrote the ratification; the people debate the constitution. everything is a contingency
the federalist papers
jay, hamilton, and madison
an answer to powerful antifedereralist papers
it explains the revolution in governement
the owners manual to the consitution, look something up here if you don't understand.
the federal farmer
probably wrote either brutus or the federal farmer.
bill of rights
a way to improve the consitution written by james madison
a second chance for what he hadn't achieved at the convention.
he turned their ideas on their head intellectually
Parchment barriers will not stop the trampling, but it can helpful.
bill of rights can help support rights.
blanket grants of power
general welfare clause:
necessary and proper clause;
the supreme court could strike down a law passed that goes against the consitution
the first congress
like a second constitutional convention
3 unresolved issues it handled:
-getting a bill of rights together and ratified
-paying off the debt (Hamilton's financial plan)
Finding a permanent capital (philly 10 yrs then DC)
george washington as president
-he had prestige and he brought it to the office.
-The people only really bought into this because they trusted George Washington.
-john hancock thought he was more important than Washington, so he refused to see him, but he eventually gave in, but this meant there weren't going to be anyone thinking htye were above him.
-Precedents: two terms served and stepped down, (washington's greatest fear as president is dying in office), he reverted back to becoming an ordinary citizen so that full power transfers to the next guy.
Washington was very careful only to put the best guys in, talent and merit and ability. Usualy it would be nepotism
-thre was a debate over what to call the president: they wanted to give him of big long complicated title. Washington thought it was a bad idea, which dounds like a king. the president of the united states
created the federal banking and financial system. literally the coolest guy ever.
Compromise of 1790
The north, the middle states, and the south all had to come out of the first congressional session.
The north got Hamilton's financial plan, the middle states got the temporary capital and the south got the permanent capital.
the american revolution is now officially over.
Sets with similar terms
History Unit 2
apush chapter 6: The Revolution Within
History 17A: Final Exam
Other sets by this creator
NESPA: Research Vocab and Concepts
NESPA: Anatomy and Physiology I need to practice
Brain Damage 101
American Revolution Midterm
Other Quizlet sets
ECON 206 Exam 2 Mylab Review Test Prep
Anxiety, Depression WH quiz
Crime / left & right realism