ANT 206 Eastern North America Archaic Terms
Terms in this set (29)
Environmental Change through the Holocene
-Early: the oak dominated deciduous forests gradually expanded northwards as the ice retreated
-Middle: was marked with increasing aridity. As a result, prairie, oak savannah and oak hickory forests shifted eastward and the mixed hardwoods were reduced in extent
-Late: climate and vegetation are similar to today. Overall the vegetation and animal populations remained the same, with some minor fluctuations in sensitive areas
Early and Middle Archaic
- long and relatively similar
- The only change that can be detected is some minor alterations in the projectile points
-5600 BC to 5000 BC the occupants built substantial settlements occupied for up to a century
Middle to Late Archaic
• By the end of the Mid Holocene, 4000 BC,
- Most of the Laurentide ice sheet was gone
• Deciduous trees spread north, including the nut bearing trees (especially hickory)
• Sea levels rose and opened up fishing areas along the coast
• The Great Lakes rose and warmed, and fish populations increased
- The rising sea levels, lake levels, and water tables created many swamps, also the rivers slowed, which was great for fishing and game
Along the Lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf coast are
more than 100 Poverty Point sites from 10 discrete
clusters, each with its own center
Extensive use of pottery; deliberate cultivation of native plants; interment under funerary mounds ; high status trade goods.
appearance of pottery is thought to be related to associated with exploitation of wild and domesticated seed crops
-Burials are seen throughout the Eastern Woodlands, and
other areas of NA for that matter, long before 1000 BC
- The greatly increased use of earthen burial mounds and pottery making make Early Woodland sites more visible to the archaeologist than most Archaic sites.
- But in the Woodland period burial mounds become an
important part of mortuary ceremonialism
- This is most marked with the Adena Complex in the central Ohio Valley
The Adena complex was a mortuary-ceremonial complex centered in the central Ohio Valley that was shared by many local cultures.
• Most Adena sites are burial mounds
- They began as simple, single person burials (cremated or interred) in a shallow elliptical pit - lined and covered with bark
- Many bodies were covered with ocher
- Grave goods became more and more elaborate
Hopewell Interaction Sphere
-Differences in regional burial practices, ceramics, settlement patterns, and other aspects of the archaeological record suggest that these items and presumably their associated ritual practices were grafted onto local cultures.
- Multiple mortuary structures under the mounds were long tombs containing skeletons, either cremated, bundled, or interred other ways.
-Enclosures: circular, rectangular, octagonal
-Processionals: parallel connecting mounds
- Internal moats and borrow pits were also part of such
- Not to be confused with the Effigy Mound Culture of Northeastern Iowa, which is later, but which also has
• Many mounds were burial mounds
• Some mounds reflect astronomic orientations
• But - not used as temple bases (later Mississippian)
Serpent Mound Site
One of the few effigy mounds in Ohio, Serpent Mound
is the largest and finest serpent effigy in the United
• Nearly a quarter of a mile long, Serpent Mound apparently represents an uncoiling serpent.
- Lies on a plateau overlooking the valley of Brush Creek.
• New dating suggests it was built at the end of the
- Large boxes constructed for the storage of the dead and their grave goods
- Simple structures sunk into the ground and covered with heavy roofs
- May have served as lineage and/or clan facilities for a single community
- Structures with thatched roofs and substantial post frames - used both to shelter the dead (cremated and /or entire corpses) and the burial activities associated with them
- Once house had fulfilled its role, was burned to the ground and an earthen mound erected over it
Hopewell Artifacts: Mica
• Source: southwest North Carolina
• Mica is a sometimes almost perfectly transparent laminated mineral that can be carefully separated into clear sheets that can then be cut into shapes:
- Animal claws
- Human heads
- Human hands
Hopewell Artifacts: Copper
- Lake Superior area
• Kewanaw Peninsula
• Isle Royale
• Essential two ways of making cold
• Artifacts include: ear spools, artificial noses, beads,
panpipes, relief drawings, breastplates, coverings for
wooden artifacts, and ax heads.
Hopewell Artifacts: Obsidian
- appears to be Yellowstone, Wyoming
• Technology employed:
- developed pressure flaking
• Artifact types:
- Projectile points
- Ritual, non-utilitarian forms (too big and too brittle for practical use)
Hopewell Artifacts: Groundstone
- Hopewell artifact is the platform pipe
- Platform pipes depict a range of animals forming the bow
Travel to source of a material, Exchange goods or services for it, Receive it as a gift, Moves materials less distance
Group that controls a resource gives some of it to neighbors, Neighbors pass it on to next group and so on, Frequency of resource declines with distance from source, Moves material greater distances
- An increasing dependence upon agriculture for livelihood
• Such as maize, beans, squash, sunflowers, gourds
• Hickory, walnuts, acorns, other fruits, fish, waterfowl, deer
- The development of highly organized and ranked societies (something largely contemporaneous throughout the SE) with increasing population growth
• Increasing emphasis upon warfare with well fortified sites
- Increase in the widespread exchange of goods
- Characteristic artifacts and iconography
• Widespread occurrence of the "Southern Cult" or the "Southeastern Ceremonial Complex"
- Truncated earthen temple-mound construction surmounted by temple/elite residential structures
Found mostly along rivers.
- Settlement location most probably reflected considerations for:
• Local subsistence resources
• Alluvial soils
• Transportation and communication
• Upland settlement reflects seasonal hunting activities.
• Varieties of settlement types suggested to reflect
- Specialized activities
- Responses for functioning for the broader society.
- Residential, Procurement , Administrative
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex/Cult
objects in burials:
= Cross, Sun circles, Forked eye, Open eye, Hand-and-eye, Death motifs, Birds, Rattlesnake, Bobcat (always naturalistic), Panther, Deer, Spider
=Often associated with above motifs and God-Animal Beings.
- Conch pendants, Embossed copper plates, Sheet copper hair emblems, Ear spools, Monolithic axes, Batons or maces, Effigy pipes, Discoidal stones (Chunkee), Conch shell bowls, Ceremonial flints
Hierarchical organization - Chiefdom
• Local Chiefdoms
- Possibly the complex state (in some instances, at least in emergent form):
- State, with the capital having been Cahokia
- Possibly others at Moundville, etc.
• Chiefdoms were a specific kind of human social
organization with social ranking as a fundamental part of
- In ranked societies people belonged to one of two groupings, elites or commoners.
• Elites, who made up a relatively small percentage of chiefdom populations, had a higher social standing than commoners.
• Site location:
- Cahokia was the largest prehistoric city north of Mexico
- At its peak it may have had some 20,000-30,000 inhabitants
- This site was first inhabited by Indians of the Late Woodland culture about AD 700.
• The site grew during the following Mississippian period, after AD 900, and by AD 1050-1150, the site was the regional center for the Mississippian culture with as many as 50 satellite communities, villages and farmsteads around it.
• After AD 1200, the population began to decline and the site was abandoned by AD 1400.
Largest monument at Cahokia:
- About 100 feet high
- Covers sixteen acres (3 acres more than great pyramid at Giza)
- 316 by 241 meters (76,156 square meters) rising over 30 meters
- Contains over 600,000 cubic meters of earth
• Constructed in stages
• This constitutes one of the largest examples of prehistoric construction in the entire Western Hemisphere
-Excavations begun in 1966 uncovered a two-mile-long stockade surrounding the central portion of Cahokia.
- The wall was started around A.D. 1100 and then rebuilt three times over a period of 200 years.
-Each construction required 15,000-20,000 oak and hickory logs, one foot in diameter and twenty feet tall.
-The logs were sunk into a trench four to five feet deep and were supported with horizontal poles or interwoven with saplings.
• Evidence that there were as many as five Woodhenges at Cahokia.
• These were built over a period of 200 years (A.D. 900-1100).
• Fragments of wood were identified as red cedar and used for the posts.
• Possible functions of "Woodhenge":
- Observatory: May have functioned like Stonehenge
For astral and horizon alignment observations.
• Three posts are crucial as seasonal markers -- those marking the first days of winter and summer (the solstices), and one halfway between marking the first days of spring and fall (the equinoxes).
- Sun Dance "Temple"
• 300-acre ceremonial center. Occupied from about 950-550 BP.
• 3,000 residents at its peak and 20 major ceremonial mounds
• Chiefdom: a ranked society with at least 3 social levels.
• Ascribed (elite) and achieved (villagers) status
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
ANT 206 EX 3
Arch Final Exam
Archaeology Chapter 7
ANTH 103 Final Exam
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
HIS 100 FINAL
ANT 206 Southwest Archaeology terms
Ant 206 California terms
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP U.S. History - Pre-Contact North America (Key Concept 1.1)
Paleo, Archaic, Early Woodland, Late Woodland
Eastern North America
Paleoindian Arch Midterm