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the study of matter and how it changes


molecules are tightly packed, have a definite shape and volume, cannot be compressed, and only vibrate a little


molecules are loosely packed, have a definite volume but do not have a definite shape, cannot be compressed, and move somewhat


a substance that flows (includes liquids AND gases)


molecules are very far apart, have no definite shape or volume, can be compressed, and move very fast


substances with some characteristics of solids and some of liquids


the amount of space something takes up


the average amount of energy a substance has

physical changes

changes the form of the substance but not its identity


solid to a liquid by adding heat


liquid to a solid by taking away heat


liquid to a gas by adding heat


vaporizing that takes place on just the surface of the liquid


vaporizing that takes place throughout the liquid


gas to a liquid by taking away heat (fog on a mirror, "sweat" on a cold can of pop)


solid to a gas or gas to a solid (no liquid phase in between)

physical property

a property that can be observed WITHOUT changing it into another substance

chemical property

a property of a pure substance that describes its ability to CHANGE into different substances


chemical property that describes how easily something catches fire and burns


chemical property that describes how acidic or basic (alkali) a substance is


physical property that describes how easily something will dissolve in water

state of matter

physical property that describes whether something is a solid, liquid, or gas


physical property that describes the feel of something


chemical property that describes how easily a substance will react with another substance, ie. baking soda reacting with vinegar

base (alkali)

substance that has a pH higher than 7 on the pH scale


substance that has a pH lower than 7 on the pH scale


substance that has a pH of 7

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