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EES - Final Exam
Terms in this set (58)
Which continental marginsrepresent subduction?
Japanese and Andean
What kind of Basin does Death Valley represent?
Where was the most recent volcanic eruption in California?
How does cooling rate compare to crystal size?
Slow cooling = large crystals; fast cooling = small crystals
What was the largest earthquake ever recorded on earth?
1960 Chile 9.5
Is there a significant amount of magma below Long Valley Caldera?
Yes, enough to run a geothermal power plant
What is the primary use of water in California?
Agriculture - 85%
How did the Gold Rush of California begin?
Accidentally discovered by John Marshall, the contractor that was building Sutter's Mill
What types of fossils have been found in the Central Valley?
Antelope, camels, mammoths
What city is the earthquake capital of the world?
What is the primary rock type in the Sierra Nevada?
What type of Plate boundary does the San Andreas Fault represent?
Why is the Central Valley able to grow such a variety and abundance of crops?
Soils are transported from many sources making them nutrient rich
What is the primary rock type associated with the Cascades?
What type of volcano would you expect to find at a convergent type boundary?
What is the difference between a sandstone, conglomerate, breccia, and shale?
A) Sandstone - sand-sized particles
B) Conglomerate- gravel-sized particles rounded
C) Breccia - gravel-sized particles angular
D) Shale - clay-sized particles
What is the highest peak in the Sierra Nevada?
Mt. Whitney 14,505
What is the driving force of plate tectonics?
What cause most of the damage in the 1906 San Fransisco earthquake?
The ______ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage.
What is he significance of the of the Neenach and Pinnacles of volcanic fields?
Shows the displacement of the San Andreas Fault; amount of separation
Why was mercury used in gold mining?
Chemical affinity to gold, extract it from rock and make an amalgam. Loss of mercury - 10% - 30% = 10,000,000 estimate
How did the Klamath mountains form?
What did William Mulholland want to do with Yosemite national park?
Build a dam and turn it into a reservoir
How did the Cascades form?
What is the origin of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain?
Subsurface faulting, allowing magma to rise to the surface
How was the San Andreas Fault discovered?
What is the bishop tuff?
Ash fall deposit from the eruption of Long Valley Caldera
What is the current state of earthquake prediction?
How did Yosemite Valley form?
Initially cut down by rivers then Glaciation made it a U-shaped, flat-bottomed valley
What are the primary hazards associated with cascade volcanism?
Lahars, pyroclastic flows
When was petroleum first discovered in California?
How was petroleum being used when it was first discovered in California?
Indians using to seal their canoes
What is the importance of the Monterey Formation?
What is the general trend of the Transverse Ranges?
East - West
Some deserts, such as the Death Valley, are extremely dry because of mountain ranges nearby. What is the term used to describe these types of deserts?
Rain Shadow deserts
Why has Mammoth Mountain experienced high carbon dioxide levels in the past 20 years?
Degassing of the magma chamber
Where are the oldest rocks in California found?
Mojave and Death Valley
What tectonic plate was subducted and subsequently formed the San Andreas Fault?
What is the general rock type of the Great Valley Sequence?
Which city receives water from the Hetch Hetchy reservoir?
The Sierra Nevada were formed from what type of tectonic boundary?
Andean type subduction zone
How was the San Joaquin Valley formed?
What is a batholith?
A collection of plutons
What are the active volcanoes in California?
Shasta, Lassen, Medicine Lake, Long Valley
What is the Earth's inner core composed of?
Solid iron (98%) and nickel (2%)
Basin and range faulting is due to what process?
Thinning of the crust due to extension
Which geological subjects do not have a representative in California?
What is a Modoc Plateau?
Why has subsidence that has occurred in Three Rocks, California?
Overpumping of flood water
What is an ophiolite?
Represents a slice of the oceanic crust on land
What types of faults allowed for extension of the Basin and Range?
Why are the Transverse ranges oriented differently than other ranges in California?
San Andreas Fault twisted them into their current position
Of the continental margin types we have seen, which one represents the formation of the Coast ranges and the Sierra Nevada batholith?
Of the continental margin types, which one represents the current tectonic setting of California?
What is the largest crystalline old sample on earth?
44 - lb. ironstone crown jewel
Know the three plate boundaries, type of stress, and fault type associated with each.
A) Convergent - compressional stress- reverse faults
B) Divergent - tensional stress - normal faults
C) Transform - shear stress - strike slip faults
Know the California state rock, mineral, gemstone, and fossil.
Rock - serpentine
Mineral - gold
Gemstone - benitoite
Fossil - Smilodon
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