34 terms

Prentice Hall Science Explorer Chemical Building Blocks, Chapter 1

Chapter 1, Section 1, 15 terms
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matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space.
chemistry
The study of the properties of matter and how matter changes.
substance
A single kind of matter that is pure and has a specific set of properties.
physical property
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance.
chemical property
A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance.
element
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.
atom
The basic particle from which all elements are made.
chemical bond
The force that holds two atoms together.
molecule
A particle made of two or more atoms bonded together.
compound
A pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined.
chemical formula
A formula that gives the elements in a compound and the ratio of atoms.
mixture
Two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically combined.
heterogeneous mixture
A mixture in which pure substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture.
homogeneous mixture
A mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture.
solution
An example of a homogeneous mixture; forms when substances dissolve.
weight
A measure of the force of gravity on an object
mass
A measure of how much matter is in an object
International System of Units
The system of units used by scientists to measure the properties of matter.
volume
The amount of space that mater occupies.
density
The measurement of how much mass of a substance is contained in a given volume.
physical change
A change in a substance that does not change its identity
chemical change
A change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances.
law of conservation of mass
The principle that the total amount of matter is neither created nor destroyed during any chemical or physical change.
energy
The ability to do work or cause change.
temperature
A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance.
thermal energy
The total energy of all the particles of an object.
endothermic change
A change in which energy is taken in.
exothermic change
A change in which energy is given off.
kinetic energy
The energy of matter in motion.
potential energy
The energy an object has because of its position; also the internal stored energy of an object, such as energy stored in chemical bonds.
chemical energy
A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms.
electromagnetic energy
A form of energy that travels through space as waves.
electrical energy
The energy of electrically charged particles moving from one place to another.
electrode
A metal strip that conducts electricity.