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1. What is the industrial revolution? What factors caused the growth in manufacturing in the period 1815-1850? 2. What types of transportation revolutionized production and consumption in the United States? 3. How and why did inequalities increase in the first half of the 19th century in the United States? 4. How did religion lay the foundation for reform movements in the early 19th century? 5. Detail some of the reform movements of the early 19th century and evaluate the degree of success thes…


reduced the cost of shipping goods upriver so that farmers could transport their crops and make money

Robert Fulton, Clermont

built the first successful steamboat

Erie Canal

artificial waterway linking eastern seaboard cities to western markets, reduced the cost of shipping


the most important transportation link in Jacksonian transportation revolution, linked Northeast and Northwest to exchange goods, people, and values by midcentury

incorporation, limited liability


Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) (steamboat case)

supreme court decision involving coastal commerce that overturned a steamboat monopoly granted by the state of New York on the gorunds that only Congress had the authority to regulate interstate commerce

Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837)

ruling in which the Supreme Court encouraged economic competition by ruling that the broader rights of the community took precedence over any presumed right of monopoly granted in a corporate charter

New York City

Atlantic seaboard city, America's largest by 1810, situated with access to the Atlantic Ocean, the Hudson River, and the Erie Canal, city grew exponentially


horsedrawn carriages carrying up to 20 passengers

fall line

towns grew along rivers in New England where the rapidly falling water provided cheap power to drive industrial machinery of factories and machine ships

Lowell, Massachusetts

America's first large-scale planned manufacturing city, model of urbanization and industrialization


a surge of Irish and German immigrants fueled the growth of cities after the 1830s because of economic and political upheave in Europe

push-pull theory of immigration

people move from more populated places to less populated places


Catholic peasants who grew potatoes, immigrated to US after potato famines in 1845-6 without money or marketable skills, lived in bad conditions in cities


people who came to America escaping poor harvests and political turmoil, purchased land in the west or became businessmen in cities

artisan, mechanic

craftsmen skilled in specialized areas, e.g. shoemaking, furniture making, silver smithing


adolescent boys legally sent by their fathers to live with and obey a master craftsmen in return for being taught a trade


artisans who had learned the skills of their craft but lacked the capital to open their own shops

master craftsmen

artisans with their own shops who taught crafts to journeymen and apprentices

factory system

production system that was cheap and quick, subdivided the skills of the artisan into semi-skilled tasks and put workers under systematic controls

Samuel Slater

British mechanic who came to the United States and used his knowledge of water-powered spinning machinery to operate the nation's first cotton factory in 1790

Waltham system

during the industrialization of the early nineteenth century, the recruitment of unmarried young women for employment in factories

child labor

Irish immigrants were forced to send their children to work in the mills

"mill girls"

New England farmer's daughters worked in mills for their own wages, but had to live in strict boardinghouses and work long hours

Eli Whitney

Massachusetts inventor of the cotton gin

cotton gin

marchine that cheaply and quickly removed the seeds from cotton fibers, spurring the cultivation of cotton across the South

interchangeable parts

products could be mass produced, standardized, and easily fixed

American system of manufacturing

a technique of production pioneered in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century that relied on precision manufacturing with the use of interchangeable parts

steam power

enabled power-driven industry in cities without access to water power


used power of running water to run factories

middle class

class that grew with manufacturing, had nonmanual jobs like clerks, managers, and sales agents, separated work and home and focused on respectability

class consciousness

the separation of home and work was the first step in evolving class consciousness, home became a place of material comfort for the rising middle class and having servants was a status symbol; the middle class was shaped by evangelical religion

consumer goods

produced by factories and bought by the middle class

"moral behavior"

middle class stressed virtues of sobriety, self-restrain, and hard work - this confirmed their jobs for economic self-interest and inspired them to try to control their community morally


reform movement originating in the 1820s that sought to eliminate the consumption of alcohol

cult of domesticity

the belief that women, by virtue of their sex, should stay home as the moral guardians of family life

National Trades Union

the first national union established in 1834, led strikes and united workers for rights like shorter work day, better wages, and job security

Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)

ruling of the Massachusetts Supreme Court that a trade union was not subject to laws against criminal conspiracies and that a strike could be used to force employers to hire only union members

nativist organizations

favored the interests and culture of native-born inhabitants over those of immigrants

The Benevolent Empire

network of reform associations affiliated with Protestant churches in the early nineteenth century dedicated to the restoration of moral order

Reverend Lyman Beecher

evangelical leader who formed the General Union for Promoting the Observance of the Christian Sabbath, leading the Sabbatarian movement

moral order

discourage Sabbath-breaking, intemperance, and profanity and encourage industry, piety, order, and morals

American Sunday School Union


Sabbatarian movement

reform organization founded in 1828 by Congergationalist and Presbyterian ministers that lobbied for an end to the delivery of mail on Sundays and other Sabbath violations


reform had to begin with the voluntary decision of individuals to rid themselves of sin

American Temperance Society

national organization established in 1826 by evangelical Protestants that campaigned for total abstinence from alcohol and was successful in sharply lowering per capita consumption of alcohol

Washington Temperance Societies

small businessmen and artisans convinced the working class that temperance and the frugality involved with it would get them through the economic depression of 1839-1845

"social mother"

women took on the role of caring for deserving poor

American Female Moral Reform Society

organization founded in 1839 by female reformers that established homes of refuge for prostitutes and petitioned for state laws that would criminalize adultery and the seduction of women

Joseph Smith

founder of the Mormon Church - came from farmers uprooted and impoverished by the market economy and industrialization

Church of the Latter-day Saints, Mormons

church founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith and based on the reveleations in a sacred book he called the Book of Mormon

Enlightenment values and outlook

antebellum reformers drew from the Enlightenment belief in progress for social improvement, and saw unlimited potential for the United States to be a model republic of virtuous, intelligent citizens

free public schooling

workers wanted all children to have free, tax-supported education, but wealthier people didn't want to pay for it

Horace Mann

head of the first Massachusetts state board of education, championed education reform


the followers of Mother Ann Lee, who preached a religion of strict celibacy and communal living


a social structure based on the common ownership of property

Oneida Community

utopian community established in upstate New York in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes and his followers

John Humphrey Noyes

established the Oneida Community in 1847 with unconventional sexual and community roles

New Harmony

short-lived utopian community established in Indiana in 1825, based on the socialist ideas of Robert Owen, a wealthy Scottish manufacturer

Robert Owen

industrialist and philanthropist who established the New Harmony utopian community, where cooperation would supersede individual interests

utopian socialism

a social order based on government ownership of industry and worker control over corporations as a way to prevent worker exploitation

Brook Farm

a utopian community and experimental farm established in 1841 near Boston

Ralph Waldo Emerson

transcendentalist who inspired intellectuals of the American literature renaissance


a philosophical and literary movement centered on an idealistic belief in the divinity of individuals and nature

Walt Whitman

published Leaves of Grass in 1855 celebrating the democratic variety of the American people

Henry David Thoreau

lived in isolation and wrote Walden, embodying a transcendentalist fascination with nature and self-discovery

Nathaniel Hawthorne

one of the greatest novelists of the American renaissance

Herman Melville

novelist who focused on the existence of evil and the human need for community


white Americans were afraid that emancipation would lead to a race war or end their superior position

American Colonization Society

organization, founded in 1817 by antislavery reformers, that called gor gradual emancipation and the removal of freed blacks to Africa

David Walker Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World (1829)

book published by free black man that indicted whites and said that America belonged to blacks more than whites

Nat Turner's Rebellion (1831)

resistance of enslaved to slavery

William Lloyd Garrison

from Massachusetts, a leading figure in early abolitionism who published The Liberator and founded the American Antislavery Society

The Liberator

abolitionist newspaper published by William Lloyd Garrison beginning in 1831


an immediate moral commitment to end slavery

racial equality

abolitionists demanded legal equality of free blacks


freeing slaves

American Anti-slavery Society (1833)

the first national organization of abolitionists

status of women

women drew parallels between the suppression of slaves and their own suppression in society

American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society -- Anti-Garrisonians

abolitionists who disagreed with the equality women sought in the abolitionist movement and society

Lucretia Mott

feminist excluded from the World Anti-Slavery Convention

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

feminist who vowed to speak out for oppressed women

Seneca Falls Convention (1848)

the first convention for women's equality in legal rights, held in upstate New York

Declaration of Sentiment

the resolutions passed at the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 calling for full female equality, including the right to vote

Liberty Party

the first antislavery political party, formed in 1840

Frederick Douglass - Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845)

most dynamic spokesman of the black abolitionists, held that the Constitution was a 'glorious liberty document'

The North Star

Frederick Douglass's abolitionist newspaper

"Slave Power"

abolitionist idea of a conspiracy of planters and their northern lackeys that controlled the federal government and was plotting to spread slavery and subvert any free institutions that opposed it

Free Soil Party

poltical party founded on Northern fears that free labor would be shut out of the territories won in the Mexican War

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