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Identifying an issue

policymakers receive much of their information from the national media

Agenda building

congress must be aware that the program requires congressional action.

may occur as the result of a crisis, technological change, or mass media campaigns, as well as through the efforts of strong political personalities and effective lobbying groups.

Policy formulation

Various policy proposals are discussed among government officials and the public.

take place in printed media, television or halls of congress

congress holds hearings, the president voices the administration's views, and the topic may even become a campaign issue

policy adoption

choosing a specific policy from among the proposals that have been discussed

policy implementation

involves the implementation of the policy alternative chosen by congress

government action must be implemented by bureaucrats, the courts, police, and individual citizens

policy evaluation

after implemented, it must be evaluated

groups inside and outside the government conduct studies to determine what actually happens after a policy has been in place for a given period of time

based on this feedback and the perceived success or failure, a new round of policymaking initiatives may be undertaken to improve on the effort

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