OrgB Final

A type of conflict between two people.
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Terms in this set (125)
Stands for the "best alternative to a negotiated agreement." Determining your BATNA is one important part of the investigation and planning phase in negotiation.BATNAThe traditional fixed-pie approach in which negotiators see the situation as a pie that they have to divide between them.distributive viewAn approach to negotiation in which both parties look for ways to integrate their goals under a larger umbrella.integrative approach.Includes mediation, arbitration, and other ways of resolving conflicts with the help of a specially trained, neutral third party without the need for a formal trial or hearing.alternative dispute resolution (ADR)A process in which an outside third party (the mediator) enters the situation with the goal of assisting the parties to reach an agreement.mediationA process that involves bringing in a third party, the arbitrator, who has the authority to act as a judge and make a binding decision to which both parties must adhere.arbitrationDecisions that are made to set the course of an organization.strategic decisionsDecisions about how things will get done.tactical decisionsDecisions employees make each day to make the organization function.operational decisionsA series of steps that decision makers should consider if their goal is to maximize their outcome and make the best choice. see screenshotrational decision-making model1. Identify the Problem 2. Establish Decision Criteria 3. Weigh Decision Criteria 4. Generate Alternatives 5. Evaluate the Alternatives 6. Choose the best alternative 7. Implement the decision 8. Evaluate the decision8 steps of the Rational Decision-Making ModelA decision making process in which more and more time is spent on gathering information and thinking about it, but no decisions actually get made.analysis paralysisTo accept the first alternative that meets minimum criteria.satisficeThe generation of new ideas that are original, fluent, and flexible.problem identificationImmersion is the step in which the decision maker thinks about the problem consciously and gathers information. A key to success in creative decision making is having or acquiring expertise in the area being studied.immersionDuring incubation, the individual sets the problem aside and does not think about it for a while. At this time, the brain is actually working on the problem unconsciously.incubationwhen the solution to the problem becomes apparent to the person, usually when it is least expected. This is the "Eureka!" (meaning "I have found it!") moment, similar to what happened to the ancient Greek inventor Archimedes, who discovered how to measure the density of an object while taking a bath.illuminationThe number of ideas a person is able to generate.fluencyHow different the ideas are from each other. If individuals are able to generate several unique solutions to a problem, they are high on f lexibility.flexibilityHow unique a person's ideas are.originalityA checklist tool that helps you think of changes you can make to an existing marketplace to create something new.SCAMPERprocess of generating ideas that follows a set of guidelines, including not criticizing ideas during the process, the idea that no suggestion is too crazy, and building on other ideas (piggybacking).brainstormingA variation of brainstorming in which the group focuses on ideas that are impossible and then imagines what would need to happen to make them possible.wildstormingThe tendency for individuals to rely too heavily on a single piece of information.anchoring and adjustment biasA situation in which information that is more readily available is viewed as more likely to occur.availability biasWhen individuals continue on a failing course of action after information reveals this may be a poor path to follow.escalation of commitment biasA situation in which good outcomes are attributed to personal characteristics, such as intelligence, but undesirable outcomes are attributed to external circumstances, such as the weather.fundamental attribution errorConfusing correlation with causation.correlation and causalityA tendency to avoid a critical evaluation of ideas the group favors.groupthinkA group process that utilizes written responses to a series of questionnaires instead of physically bringing individuals together to make a decision.delphi TechniqueA group process involving problem identification, solution generation, and decision making.nominal group technique (NGT)The act of influencing others toward a goal.leadershipPsychologists refer to as "g" and is synonymous with "IQ" in everyday language, has been related to a person's emerging as a leader within a group. Specifically, people who have high mental abilities are more likely to be viewed as leaders in their environment. [general mental abilityOne of two broad categories of behavior: task-oriented behaviorsinitiating structureOne of two broad categories of behavior: people-oriented behaviorsconsiderationWhat occurs when leaders make the decision alone without necessarily involving employees in the decision-making process.autocratic decision makingWhat occurs when leaders leave employees alone to make the decision. The leader provides minimum guidance and involvement in the decision.laissez-faire decision makingA theory of human nature which assumes that employees are lazy, do not enjoy working, and will avoid expending energy on work whenever possible.theory XA theory of human nature which assumes that employees are not lazy, can enjoy work, and will put effort into furthering organizational goals.theory YThose who lead employees by aligning employee goals with the leader's goals. These leaders use their charisma, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration to influence their followers.transformational leadersThose who ensure that employees demonstrate the right behaviors and provide resources in exchange. These leaders provide contingent rewards and manage by exception.transactional leadersBehaviors leaders demonstrate that create confidence in, commitment to, and admiration for the leader.charismaWhen leaders challenge organizational norms and status quo, and encourage employees to think creatively and work harder.intellectual stimulationWhen leaders come up with a vision that is inspiring to others.inspirational motivationWhen leaders show personal care and concern for the well-being of their followers.individualized considerationRewarding employees for their accomplishments.contingent rewardsLeaving employees alone but at the same time proactively predicting potential problems and preventing them from occurring.active management by exceptionLeaving employees alone but then coming to the rescue if anything goes wrong.passive management by exceptionThe belief that the other party will show integrity, fairness, and predictability in one's actions toward the other.trustA high-quality, trust-based relationship between a leader and a follower.high-quality LMX relationshipsA situation in which the leader and the employee have lower levels of trust, liking, and respect toward each other.low-quality LMX relationshipsA leadership approach that defines the leader's role as serving the needs of others.servant leadershipA leadership approach advising leaders to stay true to their own values.authentic leadership approachThe ability to influence the behavior of others to get what you want.powerPeople's tendencies to behave consistently with social norms.conformityThe more that a person or unit is dependent on you, the more power you have.dependencyIn the context of dependency, refers to the uniqueness of a resource.scarcityThe value of the resource.importanceOne's ability to find another option that works as well as the one offered.substitutabilityPower that comes from one's organizational role or position.legitimate powerThe ability to grant a reward, such as an increase in pay, a perk, or an attractive job assignment.reward powerThe ability to take something away or punish someone for noncompliance.coercive powerPower that comes from knowledge and skill.expert powerPower that comes from access to specific information.information powerPower that stems from the personal characteristics of the person such as the degree to which we like, respect, and want to be like them.referent powerPromoting and enhancing one's qualities to create a specific image in the eyes of the other person.self-focused impression managementComplimenting or praising the other person, doing favors, or conforming to their opinions to make oneself more likable to them.other-focused impression managementPeople's interpersonal style, including their ability to relate well to others, self-monitor, alter their reactions depending upon the situation they are in, and inspire confidence and trust.political skillPeople linked to the greatest number of people.central connectorsPeople who connect one network to another within the company or even across organizations.boundary spannersThe degree to which decision making authority is concentrated at higher levels in an organization.centralizationThe number of employees reporting to a single manager.span of controlGrouping of jobs based on similarity in functions.functional structuresGrouping of jobs based on the products, services, customers, or geographic locations the company is serving.divisional structuresStructures that resemble a bureaucracy and are highly formalized and centralized.mechanistic structuresAn organization where all the nonessential functions are outsourced.modular organizationthe philosophy of revolutionary changekakushinA group that does not receive any experimental manipulation so it can be compared to a treatment group.control groupThe likelihood that findings in a given study would be found in another setting or study.generalizethe CONSISTENCY of measurementreliabilityWhether the measure captures what it intended to capturevaliditythe action of causing something.causationThe ways in which people are similar or different from each other.diversityThe tendency to be more attracted to individuals who are similar to us.similarity-attraction phenomenonompatibility between employees and their organizations. Compatibility can result from one party supplying a need of the other party, similar values across parties, or both.person-organization fita person's personality traits will reveal insight as to adaptability within an organization.person-job fitOur opinions, beliefs, and feelings about aspects of our environment.attitudeFactors that are extrinsic to the job such as company policies and working conditions.hygiene factorsThe removal of rewards following negative behavior.extinctionRemoval of unpleasant outcomes once desired behavior is demonstrated.negative reinforcementExpanding the tasks performed by employees to add more variety.job enlargementA job redesign technique allowing workers more control over how they perform their own tasks.job enrichmentMotivating Potential Score This tendency for high levels of job characteristics to lead to positive outcomes.MPS((Skill Variety + Task Identity + Task Significance) ÷ 3) × Autonomy × FeedbackMPS =Stress caused by factors that detract us from our personal goals and prevent personal growth.hindrance stressorsDemands and circumstances that cause stress but also promote individual growth.challenge stressorsThe distortion or withholding of information to manage a person's reactions.filteringThe meaning of a word or phrase.semanticsAny aspect of group interaction that inhibits group functioning.process lossTeams where members are not located in the same physical place.virtual teamsa thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof.assumptionsVisible, tangible aspects of organizational cultureartifactsRead the comprehensive description in Chapter 14, section 3 of the text.Lewins' change modelemphasizes the importance of preparation or unfreezing before change, and reinforcement of change afterward or refreezing.Lewin's three-stage process of changeOr making sure that organizational members are ready for and receptive to change, is the first step in Lewin's suggested change model.unfreezingOr executing the planned changes, is the second phase of Lewin's change model.changeThe final stage of Lewin's change model, involves ensuring that change becomes permanent and the new habits, rules, or procedures become the norm.refreezing1-2 CULTURE CREATION 1a Founder values & preferences 1b Industry demands 2 Early Values, Goals, Assumptions 3-4 CULTURE MAINTENANCE 3a Attraction-selection-attrition 3b New employee onboarding 3c Leadership 3d Reward Systems 4 Organizational CultureCulture formation graph Be able to draw it out - On the OB Final Word Doc 2 > 1 > 4 > 1 2Provides a practical way for managers to understand, measure, and change organizational culture. 1: Clan 2. Adhocracy 3. Hierarchy 4. MarketCompeting values framework 1, 2, 3, 4A clan culture has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and control. COLLABORATE Means: Cohesion, participation, communication, empowerment Ends: Morale, people development, commitmentCLAN CULTUREAn adhocracy culture has an external focus and values flexibility. CREATE Means: Adaptability, creativity, agility Ends: Innovation, growth, cutting-edge outputADHOCRACY CULTUREHierarchy Culture has an internal focus which produces a more formalized and structured work environment, and values stability and control over flexibility. CONTROL Means: Capable processes, consistency, process control, measurement Ends: Efficiency, timeliness, smooth functioningHIEARCHY CULTUREHas a strong external focus and values stability and control. Amazon COMPETE Means: Customer focus, productivity, enhancing competitiveness. Ends: Market share, profitability, achievementMARKET CULTURE1) Analytical 2) Conceptual 3) Directive 4) Behavioral Vertical Axis: Tolerance for Ambiguity; Low to High Horizontal Axis: Value Orientation; Task and technical concerns to People and social concernsDecision Making Styles 1,2 3,4 Vertical Axis Horizontal AxisAccommodation, Collaboration Compromise Avoidance, Competition Vertical Axis: Level of Cooperation Horizontal Axis: Level of CompetitivenessConflict Handling Styles 1,2 3 4,5 Vertical Axis Horizontal Axis