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F. Anth Final Exam

Terms in this set (44)

The pelivs of a woman is wider and more circular whereas the pelivs of a man is narrower and heart-shaped.
Two angles, the sub-pubic angle and the sciatic notch, cause the differences in the shape of the pelvis.
In women, the sub-pubic angle and the sciatic notch are wide. In men, the sub-pubic and and sciatic notch are narrow
pelic inlet is the space that you see when both innominates and sacrum are articulated:
- Broad in the female and narrow in the male
Sciatic Notch
- back end of the pelvis
- wide sciatic notch signifies female
- if you can stick your finger in it, and move it around, it is female. If you can't move your finger, it is male
Subpubic angle
- again, since everythnig is pushed out and wider in the female, the subpubic angle is wider in the females as well
- if you can move your thumb around, female. Can't, male
Bass offers a number of characteristics to look for in the pelvis, including:
1. Finger Test of the pubic symphysis
F Wide M NArrow
2. Sciatic Notch
F wide M narrow
3. Articulation of sacro-iliac
F raised M flat
4. PREAURICULAR SULCUS (F YES M NO)
Back to shape of Pelvis
Ischio-pubic ramus
Bone connecting pubis and ischium
narrow in FEMALE
wide in MALE
FEMALE:
A=PRESENCE OF VENTRAL ARC (RESEMBLES A CREST BELOW THE PUBIC SYMPHYSIS)
B=WIDE SUBPUBIC ANGLE C=NARROW ISCHIO-PUBIC RAMUS
MALE:
A=ABSENCE OF VENTRAL ARC (LEFT AND CENTER) B=WIDE ISCHIO-PUBIC RAMUS
Pubis Bone traits related to sex
Ventral arc: a roughened projection of bone visible on the anterior surface of the pubis bone
present in female, absent in male
Pubis body width in mm
- about 40 in females and 25-30 in males
Subpubic angle (degrees) angle made by the inferior borders of the articulated pubis bone
- >90 in females and <90 in males
****The most important area on the body for sex assessment is the pelvis******* (around 90% accurate)
Osteology
Large quantities of commingled (MNI=260) human skeltal remains recovered, mostly from lower gun decks
Initially analyzed by Professor During of the Ost. Research Lab at Stockholm Uni
Trauma ID'ed on ~10% of the skeletons, where at least 27 individuals showed characteristics of sharp force trauma
this is unexpected
The appearance of sharp force defects is not in accordance w blast injuries that might be expected as a result of the ship-board exploisions
According to contemporary sources no enemy forces boarded the sinking ship
Prof. During......
This explanation, while initially plausible, requires further examination
Saliors
Male
Majority were between 20-35 years at death
Some excetions: 4 children (9-11 yrs) and 7 older individuals (40-60 years)
The men rage in hieght from 156 to 182 cm, and 171 cm average
Heath Indicators
Multiple examples of childhood and adult indicators (enamel hypoplasia, cribra orbitalia ect)
a lot of times seen in populations that are malnurished
antemortem fractures
Osteochondritis dessecans
Osteoarthritis
activity related
usualy from old age, but can ve from injury or stress in younger people
Infections:
periostitis and osteomyelitis, tuberculosis
Dental health:
caries and periapical inflammation
absesed tooth leaches a cup of puss a day
Condition and Taphonomy
Despite resting on the ocean floor for over 300 years, the bones are well preserved
Some distal portions such as joint ends show postmortem scuffing and abrasive damage
Three centuries of diagenetic processes have left the stained and dark brown, rusty color
Weak ocean curents
Deep depth of the wreck
Low salinity
Temp. seldom exceeds 5 C (41 F)
Lack of bone-modifing scavangers or ship warms
All conditions to favorable conditions for the preservation of bones and wood