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Med Final

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centesis
surgical puncture
ectomy
excision, removal
stomy
forming an opening or mouth
tomy
incision
gram
record, writing
graph
instrument for recording
graphy
process of recording
scope
instrument for examining
scopy
visual examination
algia
pain
dynia
pain
cele
hernia, swelling
gen, genesis
forming, producing, origin
iasis
abnormal condition produced by something specific
itis
inflammation
malacia
softening
megaly
enlargement
oma
tumor
osis
abnormal condition
pathy
disease
plasia
formation or growth
plegia
paralysis
toxic
poison
a
without
epi
above, upon
hypo
below, under, deficient
infra, sub
under, below
inter
between
post
after, behind
pre, pro
in front, before
retro
backward, behind
hyper
excessive, above normal
ab
away from
ad
toward
peri
around
dia, trans
through, across
ecto, extra
outside, outward
endo
in, within
anti
against
hetero
different
homo
same
ology
study of
ologist
specialist in the study of
sagittal plane
divides the body into right and left halves
transverse plane
divides the body into superior and inferior portions
frontal plane
a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
anterior
front
posterior
Toward the back
ventral
belly side
dorsal
pertaining to the back
proximal
situated nearest to point of attachment or origin
distal
situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone
lateral
away from the midline
medial
toward the midline of the body
superior
toward the head
inferior
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
endoscopy
inspection of body organs or cavities using a lighted scope that may be inserted through an existing opening or through a small incision
laproscopy
exploration of the abdomen and pelvic cavities using a scope placed through a small incision into the abdominal wall
thoracoscopy
examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs
complete blood count CBC
common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets ; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; sorts white blood cells into five sub types with their percentages
urinalysis
the examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
computed tomography CT
Imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
doppler
ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells
flouroscopy
radiographic procedure that uses a flourescent screen instead of a photographic plate to produce a visual image from x-rays that pass through the patient, resulting in continuous imaging of the motion
magnetic resonance imaging MRI
noninvasive technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images, provides superior soft tissue contrast
nuclear scan
diagnostic technique that uses a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures (reverse of a conventional radiograph; rather than being directed into the body, radiation comes from inside the body and is then detected by a specialized camera to produce an image)
positron emission tomography PET
scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence disease (particularly useful in scanning the brain and nervous system to diagnose disorders that involve abnormal tissue metabolism, such as schizophrenia, brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer disease as well as cardiac and pulmonary disorders)
radiography
imaging technique that uses x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on a film; also called x-ray
single photon emission computed tomography SPECT
A neuroimaging technique that provides computer-generated images by tracking blood flow through glucose use by active neurons. It is like PET but uses a longer lasting radioactive tracer. Used to study brain function and structure
tomography
radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth
ultrasonography
image produced by using high-frequency sound waves and displaying the reflected "echoes" on a monitor
frozen section biopsy
ultrathin slice of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
needle biopsy
removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe
punch biopsy
removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow punch
anastomosis
surgical joining of 2 ducts, vessels to allow flow from one to another
TNM
T- Size and local extent of tumor
N - Lymph node involvement
M - Distant metastasis
TNM Staging
T: tumor size
T0: no evidence of tumor
T1, T2, T3: progressive degrees of tumor size

N: lymph node involvement
N0: no abnormal lymph nodes detected
N1a, N2a: regional lymph node involvement with increasing degrees, NO METASTASES DETECTED
N1b, N2b, N3b: regional lymph node involvement with increasing degrees, METASTASES SUSPECTED
Nx: inability to assess regional lymph nodes

M: distant metastases
M0: no evidence
M1, M2, M3: indicate ascending degrees of distant metastasis and includes distant lymph nodes
Types of Pathology
1.metabolic (diabetes), 2.infectious (measles), 3.congenital (cleft lip), 4.hereditary (hemophilia), 5.environmental (burns, trauma) 6.neoplastic (cancer)
antifungals
alter the cell wall of fungi or disrupt enzyme activity resulting in cell death
antihistamines
inhibit allergic reaction of inflammation, redness, itching caused by release of histamine
antiseptics
topically applied agents that inhibit the growth of bacteria preventing infection of cuts
corticosteriods
decrease inflammation and itching by suppressing immune system's inflammatory response
keratolytics
destroy and soften outer layer of skin so that it is sloughed off
parasiticides
kill insect parasites such as mites and lice
protectives
cover, soothe, cool inflamed skin
topical anesthetics
block sensation of pain by numbing skin
or/o, stomat/o
mouth
gloss/o, lingu/o
tongue
bucc/o
cheek
cheil/o, labi/o
lip
dent/o, odont/o
teeth
gingiv/o
gums
sail/o
salivary gland, saliva
esophag/o
esophagus
pharyng/o
pharynx
gastr/o
stomach
pylor/o
pylorus (funnel shaped terminal portion of stomach, site of digestion)
duoden/o
duodenum (first part of small intestine)
enter/o
intestine (usually small intestine)
jejun/o
jejunum (second part of small intestine)
ile/o
ileum (third part of small intestine)
append/o, appendic/o
appendix
col/o, colon/o
colon
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon (later portion of descending colon just before rectum)
rect/o
rectum
proct/o
anus or rectum
an/o
anus
hepat/o
liver
pancreat/o
pancreas
cholangi/o
bile vessel
chol/e
bile, gall
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
choledoch/o
bile duct
nas/o
nose
rhin/o
nose
sept/o
septum
sinus/o
sinus cavity
adenoid/o
adenoids
tonsill/o
tonsils
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
epiglott/o
epiglottis
laryng/o
larynx (voice box)
trache/o
trachea (windpipe)
bronchi/o
bronchus (branches of the trachea leading to lungs)
bronchioles
smallest branches of the bronchus attached to alveoli
alveoli
air sacs of lungs
bronchiol/o
bronchiole (smallest branches of bronchus attached to alveoli)
alveol/o
air sac, alveolus
pleur/o
pleura (serous membrane covering lobes of lungs and walls of thoracic cavity)
pneum/o
air, lung
pneumon/o
air, lung
pulmon/o
lung
anthrac/o
coal dust
atel/o
incomplete
coni/o
dust
cyan/o
blue
lob/o
lobe
orth/o
straight
ox/i
oxygen
ox/o
oxygen
pector/o
chest
steth/o
chest
thorac/o
chest
phren/o
diaphragm
spir/o
breath
-capnia
carbon dioxide CO2
-osmia
smell
-phonia
voice
-pnea
breathing
-ptysis
spitting
-thorax
chest
brady-
slow
dys-
bad
eu-
good
tachy-
rapid
auscultation
listening to organs with stethoscope
percussion
tapping chest w/ fingers and listening to sounds to determine size, shape, consistency of underlying structures
transudate
effusion (abnormal fluid) serum noninflammatory fluid resulting from imbalance in blood pressure
cilia
hairlike structure
homeostasis
maintenance of stable environment
pH
degree of acidity or alkalinity
septum
wall dividing 2 cavities
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
acidosis
excessive acidity of body fluids
anosmia
without smell
apnea
loss of breathing
eupnea
normal breathing
CPAP
continuous positive airway pressure machine to treat sleep apnea
asphyxia
condition from insufficient intake of oxygen
cheyne-stokes respiration
breathing pattern w/ fluctuation from deep to shallow breaths then no breath
compliance
ease of lung tissue stretch
coryza
head cold, upper respiratory infection
crackle
sound heard in lungs caused by exudate, spasms, or moisture filled alveoli also called rale
croup
inflammation of larynx, trachea, bronchi- symptom includes braking cough
pertussis
whooping cough, infectious disease
pulmonary edema
accumulation of fluid in lung tissues, often caused by heart failure
pulmonary embolus
blockage in artery of lung
wheeze
whistling or sighing sound from narrowing of respiratory passage
Mantoux Test
tuberculosis exposure test
pulmonary functions test
PFTs tests evaluating ability of lungs to inhale, exhale and exchange gases
sputum culture
test for disease causing organisms of lower respiratory tract i.e.:pneumonia
aerosol therapy
lung treatment delivering medication in mist form directly to lungs
lavage
irrigating or washing out of organ or body cavity
pneumectomy
excision of lung
tracheostomy
surgical insertion of breathing tube into trachea through opening in neck
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CT
compute tomography
CXR
chest xray
Influenza
acute infectious respiratory virus
Influenza type A
associated with worldwide epidemics (pandemics)and is highly virulent (infectious) occur every 2 to 3 yrs
Influenza type B
limited geographically and less severe than other flu types
Influenza type C
mild flu not associated with any epidemics
Flu Symptoms
fever, chills, headache, generalized muscle pain (myalgia)
TB Tuberculosis
communicable disease caused by bacteria and spread by droplets of respiratory secretions
Primary tuberculosis
first time TB enters the body and the disease develops slowly eventually producing typical inflammatory nodules called tubercles or granulomas
Pneumonia
any inflammatory disease of the lungs
aspiration pneumonia
pneumonia from inhalation of liquids or food
lobar pneumonia
pneumonia affecting only 1 lobe of the lung
consolidation
lung tissue looses spongy texture and becomes engorged
pneumocystis pneumonia
type of pneumonia associated with aids
cystic fibrosis
hereditary disease of exocrine glands that causes the body to excrete thick (viscous) mucus that clogs the pancreas and digestive tract
sweat test
test to measure amount of salt excreted in sweat to aid in diagnosis of cystic fibrosis
amni/o
amnion, amniotic sac
cervic/o
Neck, neck of uterus, cervix uteri
colp/o vagin/o
vagina
lact/o
milk
gynec/o
woman, female
hyster/o uter/o
uterus
mamm/o mast/o
breast
nat/o
birth
men/o
menses, menstruation
perine/o
perineum
oophor/o ovari/o
ovary
salping/o salpinx
tube (usually fallopian or eustachian)
-arche
beginning
-cyesis
pregnancy
-gravida
pregnant woman
-para
to bear offspring
-tochia
childbirth, labor
-version
turning
ante-
before, in front of
dys-
bad, painful, difficult
endo-
in, within
multi-
many, much
post-
after
primi-
first
viable
capable of sustaining life or normal growth and development
parturition
the process of giving birth
anteflexion
abnormal forward bending of the uterus
endometrial
pertaining to the lining of the uterus
laparoscopy
visual examination of the abdomen
cessation
ending
amniocentesis
a surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid
dystocia
difficult labor
mastectomy
excision of the entire breast
total (simple) mastectomy
excision of the entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin
modified radical mastectomy
excision of entire breast including underarm lymph nodes
radical mastectomy
excision of entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes and the chest wall muscles under breast
lumpectomy
excision of small primary breast tumor and some of the normal tissue surrounding it
mammoplasty
surgical reconstruction of the breast to change size, shape,or position
mammoplasty augmentation
breast enlargement or replacement of one that has been surgically removed
mammoplasty reduction
breast reduction, reduce size of pendulous breast often done in conjunction with mastopexy
intrauterine device
plastic or metal object placed in uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg
episiorrhaphy
repair of lacerated vulva or episiotomy
episiotomy
incision of perineum from vaginal orifice to prevent tearing of tissue and to facilitate childbirth
myomectomy
excision of myomatous tumor, generally unterine
salpingo-oophorectomy
excision of ovary and fallopian tube
tubal ligation
procedure that ties (ligates) fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy
colpocleisis
surgical closure of vaginal canal
conization
excision of choke-shaped tissue, such as mucosa of the cervix, for histological examination
cordocentesis
sampling of fetal blood drawn from umbilical vein under ultrasound guidance
cerclage
suturing of cervix to prevent premature dilation during pregnancy to decrease chance of spontaneous abortion
cesarean birth
incision of uterus to remove the fetus (c-section)
hysterosalpingography
radiography of uterus and uterine tubes (oviducts) w/ contrast medium
adnexa
accessory parts of a structure
atresia
congenital absence or closure of normal body opening
choriocarcinoma
malignant neoplasm of uterus or at site of octopi pregnancy
corpus luteum
ovarian scar tissue from rupturing of a follicle during ovulation - becomes small yellow body that produces progesterone after ovulation
dyspareunia
pain during sexual intercourse
endocervicitis
inflammation of mucous lining of cervix uteri
fibroids
benign uterine tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue (also called leiomyomas / fibromyomata uteri)
infertility
inability or diminished ability to produce offspring
menarche
beginning of menstrual function
oligomenorrhea
scanty or infrequent menstrual flow
perineum
region between vulva and anus that constitutes pelvic floor
puberty
period during which 2ndary sex characteristics develop and capability of sexual reproduction is obtained
pyosalpinx
pus in fallopian tube
retroversion
turning or state of being turned back
sterility
inability of female to become pregnant or male to impregnate
vaginismus
painful spasm of vagina from contraction of surrounding muscles
viable
capable of sustaining life
abortion
termination of pregnancy before embryo or fetus is capable of survival
abruptio placentae
premature separation of normally situated placenta
amnion
membrane continuous with and covering fetal side of placenta that forms outer surface of umbilical cord
dystocia
difficult labor due to size of fetus or small pelvic outlet
gravida
pregnant woman
para
woman who has given birth to one or more viable infants
multipara
woman who has delivered more than 1 viable infant
multigravida
woman who has been pregnant more than once
eclampsia
most serious form of toxemia during pregnancy - signs include high blood pressure, edema, convulsions, renal dysfunction
Down syndrome, trisomy 21
congenital condition characterized by physical malformations and mental retardation. Trisomy 21 is occurrence of 3 copies of chromosome 21 rather than 2
breech presentation
abnormal delivery in which fetal buttocks or feet present first during birth
parturition
process of giving birth
pelvimetry
measure of pelvic dimensions for birth
placenta previa
condition in which placenta is attached near cervix and ruptures prematurely, with spotting as early symptom
primigravida
woman pregnant for first time
primipara
woman who has given birth to 1 viable infant noted para 1
puerperium
period of 42 days following childbirth during which reproductive organs return to normal
gestation
length of time form conception to birth
lactation
production and release of milk from mammary glands
orifice
mouth or entrance or outlet of any anatomical structure
ova
female reproductive cells
graafian follicles
tiny saclike structures in ovaries which contain ovum
fimbriae
fingerlike projections that create wavelike currents in fluid surrounding ovary to move ovum into the uterine tube
bartholin glands
lubricate vaginal orifice during intercourse with secretions
clitoris
richly innervated sensory erectile tissue located in female anterior to vaginal orifice
amenorrhea
absence of menses
menopause
cessation of ovarian activity and diminished hormone activity that occurs about age 50. absence of menses has usually persisted for 1 yr
gynecology
branch of medicine concerned with diseases of female reproductive organs and breast
condylomas
genital warts caused by human papillomavirus HPV
Papanicolaou Pap test
cytological study used to detect abnormal cells sloughed form cervix - used to scrren for cervical cancer
endometrial biopsy
removal of sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study
insufflation
delivery of pressurized air or gas into chamber or cavity or organ to allow for visual exam, removal of obstruction or application of medicine
colposcopy
visual exam of vagina and cervix with optical magnifying instrument
chorionic villus sampling CVS
sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects
arteries
carry blood from the heart to all cells of the body because blood is propelled through the arteries by the pumping action of the heart, the walls of these must be strong and flexible enough to withstand the surge of blood that results from each contration of the heart
pulse
the surge of blood felt in the arteries when blood is pumped from the heart
oxygenated
a high concentration of oxgyen
arterioles
oxygenated blood travels to these smaller arteries
capillaries
the smallest vessels; microscopic vessels that join the arterial system with the venous system; most important because of function (very thin) composed of a single layer of endothelial cells and allows for exchanges of water, respiratory gases, macromolecules, metabolites, and wastes between the blood and adjacent cells; vast number of these branching from arterioles causes blood to flow very slowly
myocardium
the muscular layer of the heart
epicardium
the outermost layer of the heart
right atrium, left atrium
two upper chambers that collect blood
right ventricle, left ventricle
two lower chambers that pump blood from the heart, right pumps blood to the lungs, left pumps oxygenated blood to the entire body
vasodilation
widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls
viscosity
state of being sticky or gummy; a solution that has a high viscosity is relatively thick and flows slowly
electrocardiograph
instrument that records these electrical impulses, using a needle, or stylus, that records the activity on graph paper, needle deflection of this produces waves or peaks designated by the letters P, Q, R, S, and T, each of which is associated with a specific electrical event
systole
contraction phase when the blood is forced out of the heart; produces maximum force
diastole
relaxation phase when the ventricles are filling with blood; produces weakest force
hypertension
elevated blood pressure
hypotension
decreased blood pressure
aneurysm/o
widened blood vessel
-rrhaphy
suture
angi/o, vascul/o
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
arteriol/o
arteriole
atri/o
atrium
ather/o
fatty plaque
cardi/o
heart
electr/o
electricity
embol/o
embolus (plug)
hemangi/o
blood vessel
my/o
muscle
phleb/o, ven/o
vein
-ectasis
dilation, expansion
scler/o
hardening; sclera (white of eye)
sept/o
septum
sphygm/o
pulse
-oid
resembling
sten/o
narrowing, stricture
thromb/o
blood clot
ventricul/o
ventricle (of the heart or brain)
-gram
record, writing
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
-sphyxia
pulse
-stenosis
narrowing, stricture
brady-
slow
endo-
in, within
extra-
outside
peri-
around
tachy
rapid
trans-
across
angina
chest pain
dyspnea
breathing difficulties
arrhythmias
cardiac irregularities
syncope
loss of consciousness
cardiology
medical specialty concerned with disorders of the cardiovascular system (physician who treats this=cardiologist)
atheroma
substance composed of cholesterol, lipids, and cellular debris
tunica intima
inside lining of the arterial walls
atherosclerosis
hardening of the plaque within the arterial walls causing the vessel to lose its elasticity
thrombus
clot
infarct
localized tissue death
aneurism
a bulge
femoral arteries
major arteries of the legs
hypercholesterolemia
elevated cholesterol level
endarterectomy
innermost layer of the artery
coronary artery disease (CAD)
failure of the coronary arteries to deliver an adequate supply of blood to the myocardium caused by accumulation of plaque
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the walls of the artery
ischemia
oxygen deficiency
diaphoresis
profuse sweating
pallor
paleness
tachycardia
abnormally rapid heart rate
bradycardia
abnormally slow heart rate
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
a deflated balloon is passed through a small incision in the skin and into the diseased blood vessel; when it inflates it presses the occluding material against the lumen walls to force open the channel; after the procedure, the physician deflates and removes the balloon
stent
hollow, thin mesh tube helping to position a balloon against an artery wall
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
rerouting blood around occluded area using a vein graft that bypasses obstruction; one end is sutured to the aorta and the other end is sutured to the coronary artery below the blocked area; reestablishes blood flow to the heart muscle
endocardidits
an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and its valves, noninfective in nature, caused by thrombi formation, or infective, caused by various microorganisms; usual culprit is bacterium
bacteremia
bacteria traveling in the bloodstream
vegetations
small masses lodged in the weakened heart tissue that are composed of fibrin and platelets, usually collect on the leaflets of the valves and their cords causing backflow of blood
regurgitation
backflow of blood
embolize
lodge
stenosis
narrowing of the valves
insufficiency
improper closing of the valves in the heart
prophylactic treatment
antibiotic treatment given to protect against infection prior to invasive procedures
varicose veins
enlarged, twisted, superficial veins developing when the valves of the veins do not function properly and fail to prevent backflow of blood; blood accumulates, vein becomes engorged and excess fluid seeps form vein causing swelling
incompetent
not functioning properly
edema
swelling in surrounding tissues
varices
varicose veins in the esophagus
hemorrhoids
varicose veins in the rectum
teleangiectases
spider veins which look like short, fine lines, starburst clusters, or weblike mazes
myxoma
tumor of the heart composed of mucous connective tissue
pulmonary edema
fluid in the lungs
arthralgia
joint pain
primary tumor
malignant tumor originating in a part of the body that spreads
metastasize
spread
malignant melanoma
darkly pigmented mole or tumor of the skin
aneurysm
localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
arrest
condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
cardiac arrest
loss of effective cardiac function, which results in cessation of circulation (cardiac arrest (CA) may be due to ventricular fibrillation or asystole in which there is no observable myocardial activity)
circulatory arrest
cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation
arrhythmia
inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrhythmia
bruit
soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur
cardiomyopathy
any disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function (cases include viral or bacterial infections, metabolic disorders, or general systemic disease)
catheter
thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure
coarctation
narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs (in DVT, blood clots may break away from the vein wall and travel in the body; if they lodge in the lung, the condition is called pulmonary embolism (may be life threatening if a large portion of the lung is damaged)
ejection fraction (EF)
calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction (left ventricular EF averages 50-70% in healthy hearts but can be markedly reduced if part of the heart muscle dies, as evident after and MI or in cardiomyopathy or valvular heart disease
heart failure (HF)
failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs (commonly caused by impaired coronary blood flow, cardiomyopathies, and heart valve disease)
embolus
mass of undissolved matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel
-us
condition, structure
fibrillation
quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions (commonly corrected with a defibrillator)
hemostasis
arrest of bleeding or circulation
hyperlipidemia
excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood
primary hypertension (HTN)
hypertension in which there is no identifiable cause (most common, associated with obesity, high serum sodium level, hypercholesteroemia, or family history)
secondary hypertension (HTN)
results from an underlying, identifiable, commonly correctable cause
hypertensive heart disease
any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure
implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD)
implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart (in ventricular fibrillation, the heart quivers rather than beats, and blood is not pumped to the brain unless treatment is received within 5 to 10 minutes, ventricular fibrillation causes death)
infarct
area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply
ischemia
local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
common and occasionally serious condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation (common signs and symptoms include palpitations, panic attacks with pounding heartbeat, prophylactic treatment with antibiotics
radioisotope
chemical radioactive material used as a tracer to follow a substance through the body or a structure
palpitation
sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping," "fluttering," "skipped beats," or a pounding feeling in the chest, although most palpitations are harmless, those caused by arrhythmias may be serious, medical attention should be sought if palpitations are accompanied by pain, dizziness, overall weakness, or shortness of breath
patent ductus arteriosus
failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary (lung) artery
perfusion
circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ
tetralogy of Fallot
congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: (1) pulmonary artery stenosis; (2) interventricular septal defect; (3) transposition of the aorta, so that both ventricles empty into the aorta; (4) right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increasing workload of the right ventricle
stent
slender or threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries (used to support tubular structures that are being anastomosed or to induce or maintain patency within these tubular structures)
cardiac catheterization (CC)
passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart (gathers information about the heart, such as blood supply through the coronary arteries and blood flow and pressure in the chambers of the heart as well as enabling blood sample collection and x-rays of the heart)
electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs (help diagnose abnormal heart rhythms and myocardial damage)
Holter monitor test
ECG taken with a small portable recording system capable of storing up to 24 hours of ECG tracings (particularly useful in obtaining a cardiac arrhythmia record that would be missed during an ECG of only a few minutes' duration)
stress test
ECG taken under controlled exercise conditions (may show abnormal ECG tracings that do not appear during an ECG taken when the patient is resting)
nuclear
ECG that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow; radioisotope is injected at the height of exercise; area not receiving sufficient oxygen is visualized by decreased uptake of the isotope
cardiac enzyme studies
blood test that measures troponin T, troponin I, and creatinine kinase (CK-MB); released into bloodstream from damaged heart muscle tissue, presence in a blood specimen is consistent with myocardial damage
lipid panel
series of tests (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides) used to asses risk factors of ischemic heart disease
angiography
radiographic imaging of the heart and blood vessels after injection of a contrast dye
coronary
angiography to determine the degree of obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart; catheter is inserted into the femoral artery and threaded to the aorta, contrast dye outlines the coronary arteries and shows narrowing, stenosis, or blockage
aortography
radiological examination of the aorta and its branches following injection of a contrast medium via a catheter
echocardiography
noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures and produce images of the heart (transducer is placed on the chest to direct ultra-high-frequency sound waves toward cardiac structures; reflected echoes are then converted to electrical impulses and displayed on a screen)
echo-
repeated sound
Doppler ultrasound
noninvasive adaptation of ultrasound technology in which blood flow velocity is assessed in different areas of the heart (sound waves strike moving red blood cells and are reflected back to a recording device that graphically records blood flow through cardiac structures)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
noninvasive technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images of blood vessels (provides information about aneurysms, cardiac structures, and cardiac output
phon/o
voice, sound
sclerotherapy
injection of a chemical irritant (sclerosing agent) into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein (commonly performed to treat varicose veins and sometimes telangiectasias)
cardioversion
procedure to restore normal rhythm of the heart by applying a controlled electrical shock to the exterior of the chest
embolization
technique used to block blood flow to a site by passing a catheter to the area and injecting a synthetic material or medication specially designed to occlude the blood vessel (may serve to eliminate an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, stop bleeding, or close vessels that are supporting tumor growth)
angioplasty
procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation of the vessel using a balloon catheter
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
dilation of an occluded vessel using a balloon catheter under fluoroscopic guidance; physician inserts a catheter transcutaneously, inflates the balloon thereby dilating the narrowed vessel, and commonly positions a stent to hold the vessel open
atherectomy
removal of material form an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device
biopsy
removal and examination of a small piece of tissue for diagnostic purposes
arterial biopsy
removal and examination of a segment of an arterial vessel wall to confirm inflammation of the wall or arteritis, a type of vasculitis
catheter ablation
destruction of conduction tissue of the heart to interrupt the abnormal conduction pathway causing the arrhythmia, thus allowing normal heart rhythm to resume; usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance
commissurotomy
surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their "commissures" (points of touching); candidates for this are now treated with balloon mitral vavluloplasty
laser ablation
procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins; laser's heat coagulates blood inside the vessel, causing it to collapse and seal; later the vessels dissolve within the body, becoming less visible, or disappear altogether
ligation and stripping
typing a varicose vein (ligation) followed by removal (stripping) of the affected segment; performed for heavily damaged or diseased veins, usual treatment is laser ablation in combination with microphlebectomies and sclerotherapy
open heart surgery
surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with the assistance of a heart-lung machine; during operation, machine takes over circulation to allow surgery on the resting (nonbeating) heart; after the heart has been restarted and is beating, patient is disconnected from heart-lung machine, types of this are coronary artery bypass graft, valve replacement, and heart transplant)
pericardoicentesis
puncturing of the pericardium to remove excess fluid form the pericardial sac or to test for protein, sugar, and enzymes or determine the causative organism of pericarditis
thrombolysis
destruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters, such as tissue plasminogen activator (can restore blood flow to tissue before serious irreversible damage occurs, many thrombolytic agents also pose the risk of hemorrhage)
intravascular thrombolysis
infusion of a thrombolytic agent into a vessel to dissolve a blood clot
valvotomy
incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening; used in treating mitral stenosis
venipuncture
puncture of a vein by a needle attached to a syringe or catheter to withdraw a specimen of blood; also called phlebotomy
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
lower blood pressure by inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I (an inactive enzyme) to angiotensin II (a potent vasoconstrictor) (ex: lotensin)
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
are used to treat hypertension alone or with other agents and aid in the management of heart failure (ex: capoten)
antiarrhythmics
prevent, alleviate, or correct cardiac arrhythmias (dysrhythmias) by stabilizing the electrical conduction of the heart; used to treat atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias (ex: tambocor)
beta-blockers
block the effect of adrenaline on beta receptors, which slow nerve pulses that pass through the heart thereby causing a decrease heart rate and contractility; prescribed for hypertension, angina, and arrhythmias (dysrhythmias) (ex: tenomin, lopressor, toprol-XL)
calcium channel blockers
block movement of calcium (required for blood vessel contraction) into myocardial cells and arterial walls, causing heart rate and blood pressure to decrease; used to treat angina pectoris, hypertension, arrhythmias, and heart failure (ex: norvasc, cardizem CD, adalat CC, procardia)
diuretics
act on kidneys to increase excretion of water and sodium; reduce fluid build-up in the body, including fluid in the lungs, a common symptom of heart failure; also used to treat hypertension (ex: lasix)
nitrates
dilate blood vessels of the heart, causing an increase in the amount of oxygen delivered to the myocardium, and decrease venous return and arterial resistance, which decreases myocardial oxygen demand and relieves angina; can be administered in several ways: sublingually as a spray or tablet, orally as a tablet, transdermally as a patch, topically as an ointment, or intravenously in an emergency setting
statins
lower cholesterol in the blood and reduce its production in the liver by blocking the enzyme that produces it; lowers cholesterol when combined with a cholesterol absorption inhibitor reduces its production in the liver, but also decreases absorption of dietary cholesterol from the intestine; hypercholesterolemia is a major factor in development of heart disease; dilate arteries in skeletal muscles, thus improving peripheral blood flow (ex: lipitor, zocor, vytorin)
peripheral vasodilators
peripheral vasodilators treat peripheral vascular diseases, diabetic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and Raynaud disease (ex: cyclan, vasodilan)
antibody
protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to presence of foreign substance called an antigen
antigen
substance recognized as harmful to the host and stimulates formation of antibodies
bile pigments
substances derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin, produced by liver
cytokines
chemical substances produced by certain cells that initiate, inhibit, increase or decrease activity in other cells
extracellular fluid
body fluids found outside cells
host
organism that harbors or maintains another
immunocompetent
ability to develop an immune response
natural killer cells
specialized lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells by releasing membrane destroying chemicals
aden/o
gland
agglutin/o
clumping/gluing
bas/o
base - opposite of acid
blast/o
embryonic cell
plasma
composes blood; liquid medium in which solid components are suspended
erythrocytes
red blood cells (RBCs)
leukocytes
white blood cells (WBCs)
thrombocytes
platelets
antibody
protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to presence of a foreign substance called an antigen
antigen
substance recognized as harmful to the host and stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual
bile pigments
substances derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin, produced by the liver, and excreted in the form of bile; interference with excretion of bile may lead to jaundice
cytokines
chemical substances produced by certain cells that initiate, inhibit, increase, or decrease activity in other cells; important chemical communicators in the immune response, regulating many activities associated with immunity and inflammation
extracellular fluid
all body fluids found outside cells, including interstitial fluid, plasma, lymph, and cerebrospinal fluid; provides a stable internal environment for body cells
host
organism that maintains or harbors another organism
immunocompetent
ability to develop an immune response, or the ability to recognize antigens and respond to them
natural killer cells
specialized lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells by releasing chemicals that destroy the cell membrane causing its intercellular fluids to leak out; destroy virally infected cells and tumor cells
stem cell
undifferentiated cells that blood cells develop from
hematopoiesis; hemopoiesis
development and maturation of blood cells
erythropoiesis
red blood cell development
erythropoiesis
white blood cell development
thrombopoiesis
platelet development
reticulocyte
immature RBC that loses nuclear material prior to entering the circulatory system as mature erythrocytes
hemoglobin
specialized iron-containing compound that RBCs develop during erythropoiesis that gives them their red color; carries oxygen to the body tissues and exchanges it for carbon dioxide
hemosiderin
iron compound that hemoglobin breaks down into
diapedesis
the process by which WBCs migrate through endothelial walls of capillaries and venules and enter tissue spaces
granulocytes
three types: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils; name for dye that stains these cytoplasmic granules when a blood smear is prepared in the laboratory for examination
neutrophils
the most numerous circulating leukocyte; granules stain with a neutral dye, granules stain with a neutral dye, giving them their lilac color; motile and highly phagocytic, permitting them to ingest and devour bacteria and other particulate matter; first cell to appear at a site of injury or infection to begin the work of phagocytizing foreign material; person with serious deficiency of this blood type will die despite protective attempts by other body defences
eosinophils
contain granules that stain with a red acidic dye called eosin, protect the body by releasing many substances that neutralize toxic compounds, especially of a chemical nature, increase in number during allergic reactions and animal parasite infestations
basophils
contain granules that readily stain with a purple alkaline (basic) dye; release histamines and heparin when tissue is damaged
histamines
initiate the inflammatory process by increasing blood flow, as more blood flows to the damaged area, it carries with it additional nutrients, immune substances, and immune cells that help in damage containment and tissue repair
heparin
an anticoagulant that acts to prevent blood from clotting at the injury site
polymorphonuclear
a nucleus with more than two lobes
agranulocytes
arise in the bone marrow from stem cells, nuclei do not form lobes; commonly mononuclear leukocytes (two types: monocytes and lymphocytes)
monocytes
mildly phagocytic when found within blood vessels; remain in the vascular channels only a short time
macrophages
what monocytes transform into when they exit vascular channels; they are avid phagocytes and are capable of ingesting pathogens, dead cells, and other debris found at sites of inflammation; play a chief role in many activities associated with specific immunity
lymphocytes
include B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells, B cells and T cells provide a specialized type of defence called the specific immune response
specific immune response
specialized defence by lymphocytes that is custom-made and aimed at a specific antigen; dual action includes humoral immunity and cellular immunity
platelets
smallest formed elements found in blood, sometimes called thrombocytes, not true cells but fragments; initiate blood clotting (hemostasis) when injury occurs
hemostasis
blood clotting, not a single reaction, but a series of interlinked reactions each requiring a specific factor; if any one is absent a clot will not form, initially, the damaged blood vessel constricts and platelets become sticky and aggregate at the injury site providing a barrier to contain blood loss
thromboplastin
clotting factors in platelets and injured tissue release this that initiates clot formation
fibrinogen
the final step of coagulation, a soluble blood protein that becomes insoluble and forms fibrin strands that act as a net, entrapping blood cells
thrombus, blood clot
jellylike mass of blood cells and fibrin
plasma
the liquid portion of blood in which blood cells are suspended; when blood cells are removed plasma appears as a thin almost colorless fluid, composed of about 92% water and contains products such as plasma proteins, gases, nutrients, salts, hormones, and waste materials, makes possible chemical communication between body cells by transporting body products throughout body
plasma proteins
albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
antigens
determine what blood type one has, on sruface of RBCs
antibody
plasma does not contain this against the antigen that is present on the RBCs; plasma contains opposite antibodies; they occur naturally and are present or develop shortly after birth even though there has been no previous exposure to the antigen
hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
an incompatibility between maternal and fetal blood
blood capillaries
where small amounts of plasma seep from (extracellular fluid) resembles plasma but contains slightly less protein
lymph capillaries
where extracellular fluid returns to become lymph; passes into larger and larger vessels on its return trip to the bloodstream
lymph nodes
nodes that serve as depositories for cellular debris
spleen
resembles lymph nodes because it acts like a filter removing cellular debris, bacteria, parasites, and other infectious agents; also destroys old RBCs and serves as a repository for healthy blood cells
thymus
located in the upper part of the chest; partially controls the immune system by transforming certain lymphocytes into T cells (lymphocytes responsible for cellular immunity)
mediastinum
the upper part of the chest
tonsils
masses of lymphatic tissue located in the pharynx that act as filters to protect the upper respiratory structures from invasion by pathogens
resistance
works to protect against disease, includes physical barriers and chemical and cellular barriers
innate
present at birth
macrophages
highly phagocytic where monocytes enter tissue spaces and consume large numbers of pathogens including bacteria and viruses and process it in such a way that the highly specific antigenic properties of the pathogen are placed on the cell surface of the macrophage
antigen-presenting cell (APC)
awaits an encounter with a lymphocyte capable of responding to that specific antigen and the specific immune system begins operations to destruct the antigen
humoral immunity
component of the specific immune system that protects primarily against extracellular antigens such as bacteria and viruses that have not yet entered a cell, mediated by B cells which originate and mature in bone marrow
antigen-antibody complex
when an antibody encounters its specific antigen, it attaches to it and forms this
cellular immunity
component of the specific immune system that protects primarily against intracellular antigens such as viruses and cancer cells and is mediated by T cells; originate in the bone marrow but migrate and mature in the thymus
cytoxic T cell
the cell that actually destroys the invading antigen; determines the antigen's specific weakness and uses this weakness as a point of attack to destroy it
helper T cell
essential to the proper functioning of both humoral and cellular immunity
suppressor T cell
monitors the progression of infection; when it resolves, the suppressor T cell "shuts down" the immune response and produces memory cells
memory T cells
find their way to the lymph system and remain there long after the encounter with the antigen, ready for combat if the antigen reappears
anamnestic response
"repeat performance" disposing of the antigen during the second and all subsequent exposures is extremely rapid and much more effective than it was during the first exposure
aden/o
gland
agglutin/o
clumping, gluing
bas/o
base (alkaline, opposite of acid)
blast/o
embryonic cell
erythroblastosis fetalis
potentially fatal disease of newborns occurring when a blood incompatibility exists between mother and fetus
chrom/o
color
hyperchromic cells
erythrocytes that contain inadequate hemoglobin and are commonly associated with iron-deficiency anemia
eosin/o
dawn (rose-colored)
granul/o
granule
kary/o, nucle/o
nucleus
lymphaden/o
lymph gland (node)
lymph/o
lymph
lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
morph/o
form, shape, structure
myel/o
bone marrow; spinal cord
neutr/o
neutral, neither
-phil
attraction for
phag/o
swallowing, eating
plas/o
formation, growth
poikil/o
varied, irregular
reticul/o
net, mesh
ser/o
serum
sider/o
iron
splend/o
spleen
thromb/o
blood clot
thym/o
thymus gland
zen/o
foreign, strange
-blast
embryonic cell
-emia
blood condition
-globin
protein
-graft
transplantation
-osis
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
-penia
decrease, deficiency
-phil
attraction for
-phoresis
carrying, transmission
-phylaxis
protection
-poiesis
formation, production
-stasis
standing still
a-
without, not
allo-
other, differing form the normal
aniso-
unequal, dissimilar
iso-
same, equal
macro-
large
micro-
small
mono-
one
poly-
many, much
electrolytes
mineral salts (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carry an electrical charge in solution
filtrate
fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney
nitrogenous wastes
products of cellular metabolism that contain nitrogen
peristalic waves
sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward within the cavity
peritoneum
serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
plasma
liquid portion of blood, composed primarily of water (90%), and containing dissolved proteins, nutrients, lipids, and various waste products
semen
fluid containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system; also called seminal fluid
testosterone
androgenic hormone responsible for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum, and prostate
cyst/o,vesic/o
bladder
glomerul/o
glomerulus
lith/o
stone, calculus
meat/o
opening, meatus
nephr/o, ren/o
kidney
pyel/o
renal pelvis
ur/o
urine, urinary tract
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
andr/o
male
balan/o
glans penis
epididym/o
epididymis
orch/o, orchi/o, test/o
testis (plural testes)
perine/o
perineum
prostat/o
prostate gland
spermat/o, sperm/o
spermatozoa, sperm cells
varic/o
dilated vein
vas/o
vessel; vas deferens; duct
vesicul/o
seminal vesicle
albumin/o
albumin, protein
azot/o
nitrogenous compounds
bacteri/o
bacteria
crypt/o
hidden
gonad/o
gonads, sex glands
kal/i
potassium
ketono/o
ketone bodies
noct/o
night
olig/o
scanty
py/o
pus
-cide
killing
-genesis
forming, producing, origin
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
-ism
condition
-spadias
slit, fissure
-uria
urine
dia-
through, across
retro-
backward, behind
anuria
absence of urind production or urinary output
azotemia
retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds (urea, creatinine and uric acid) in the blood; also called uremia
bladder neck obstruction
blockage at base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
chronic renal failure
renal failure that occurs over a period of years, in which the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with normal dietary intake
dysuria
painful or difficult urination, commonly descirbed as a "burning sensation" while urinating
end-stage renal disease
condition in which kidney function is permanantly lost
enuresis
involuntary discharge of urine, also called incontinence
fistula
abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
frequency
voiding urine at frequent intervals
hesitancy
involuntary delay in initiating urination
hydronephrosis
abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
nephrotic syndrome
loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increase permeability of the glomerular membrane
nocturia
excessive or frequent urination after going to bed
oliguria
diminished capacity to form and pass urine,resulting in an infefficient excretion of the end products of metabolism
polycystic kidney disease
inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidney
urgency
feeling of the need to void immediately
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)
disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass throught the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstructio in the ureter
Wilms tumor
rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
anorchidism
congenital absence of one or both testes; also called anorchia or anorchism
aspermia
failure to form or ejaculate sperm
balanitis
inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis
epispadias
malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis
erectile dysfunction (ED)
repeated inability to initiate or maintain and erection sufficient for sexual intercourse
hydrocele
accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especailly the testes and associated structures
hypospadias
developmental anomaly in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases on the perineum
phimosis
stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis
sterility
inability to produce offspring; in the male, inability to fertilize the ovum
varicocele
swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord
digital rectal examination (DRE)
screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormally firm areas might indicate cancer
electromyography
measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
testicular self-examination (TSE)
self-examination of the testes for abnormal lumps or swellings in the scrotal sac
cystoscopy
endoscopy of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps
nephroscopy
endoscopy of the kidneys using a specialized, three-channel endoscope that enables visualization and irrigation of the kidney
urethroscopy
endoscopy of the urethra using a specialized endoscope, typically for lithotripsy or TURP
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
test that determines the amount of urea nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, present in a blood sample
culture and sensitivity (C&S)
test that determines the causative organism of a disease and how the organism responds to various antibiotics
prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
blood test used to detect prostatic disorders, especially prostatic cancer
semen analysis
test that analyzes a semen sample for volume, sperm count , motility, and morphology to evaluate fertility or verify sterilization after a vasectomy
urinalysis (UA)
batery of tests performed on a urine specimen, including physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation
computed tomography(CT)
imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
cystography
radiographic examination of the urinary bladder using a contrast medium
cystometrography
procedure that assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stages of fillingusing saline and a contrast medium introduced into the bladder through a catheter
intravenous pyelography (IVP)
radiographic examination of the kidneys and urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; also called excretory urography (EU)
kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB) radiography
radiographic examination to determine the location, size and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic cavity and to identify abnormalities of the urinary system
nuclear scan
radiology test in which radioactive materials call tracers are introduced into the patient and a specialized camera, which acts as a radiation detector, produces images by recording the emitted tracers.
ultrasound (US)
radiograph that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) and displays the reflected echoes on a monitor; also called sonography, echography or echo
srotal ultrasound
US used to assess scrotal structures and patency of the vas deferens
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)
radiological examination of the bladder and urethra performed before, during and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
dialysis
medical procedure used to filter toxic substances from the patient's bloodstream, such as excess electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes
hemodialysis
method of removing waste substances from the blood by shunting it from the body, passing it through an artificial kidney machine where it is filtered, and then returning the dialyzed blood to the patient's body
peritoneal dialysis
removal of toxic substances from the body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution
circumcision
removal of all or part of the foreskin, or prepuce, of the penis
nephropexy
fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
orchidectomy
removal of one or both testes; also called orchiectomy
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
surgical procedure that involves inserting a resectoscope into the urethra to "chip away" at the prostate gland to remove the obstruction and flushing out the chips and sending them for analysis to detect possible evidence of cancer
urethrotomy
incision of a urethral stricture
vasectomy
excision of all or a segment of the vas deferens; takes 12-15 ejaculations to clear conducting tubules
antibiotics
treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes
antispasmodics
decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder
diuretics
promote and increase the excretion of urine
potassium supplements
replace potassium due to depletion caused by diuretics
androgens
increase testosterone levels
anti-impotence agents
treat erectile dysfunction (impotence) by increasing blood flow to the penis, resultin in an erection
ARF
acute renal failure
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
C&S
culture and sensitivity
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
Cortex
outer layer of an organ or body structure
medulla
inner or central portion of an organ
erythropoietin
hormone produce by kidney to stimulate production of RBC's
Libido
sex drive
meatus
opening or passage through any part of the body
micturition
urination
nitrogenous wastes
waste products of cellular metabolism that contain nitorgen
urea
principal nitrogenous waste of protein metabolism
orifice
opening or entrance
percutaneour
procedure performed through the skin
reflux
backward or return flow of a fluid
circumsicion
the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis
erection
cylinders engorged with blood during sexual excitemetn; enables penis to serve as a penetrating organ