What president of the United States was not a champion of democracy and, as a young lawyer before the Revolution, agreed to defend British soldiers who had been charged with murder for firing on protesters in the streets of Boston?
What ancient British legal principle holds that all people are equal before the law, all are subject to it, and no one is above it?
Rule of law
John Adams and the others who wrote Americans founding documents believed in a ________ system, in which the people set up and agree on the basic rules and procedures that will govern them?
The US constitution is argued to be a gatekeeper in that it?
Allows and limits access to power at the same time
The right to life, liberty, and property, according to John Locke, are _______ rights, rights so fundamental that government cannot take them away
The constitution created a ______ in which the people elect others to govern in their name.
While doing research for a term paper in a government class, Gregory Watson discovered an unratified amendment proposed by James Madison that would prohibit any congressional pay raise from taking effect until after an ensuing election. The amendment was still pending because:
It was not yet approved by enough states
The amendment process that so interested Gregory Watson is the means by which the U.S. Constitution can be formally changed. His efforts to change the constitution show ________?
The use of the gateway of citizen lobbying to affect political change.
In modern democracies, a ______ sets forth the basic rules and procedures for how the people shall be governed, including the powers and structures of the government, as well as the rights retained by the people.
The American colonies objected when, following the _____, Great Britain tried to recoup some of the costs of defending the colonies by imposing regulations and taxes on them.
French and Indian War
The ______ set forth a long list of items that could be exported only to Great Britain, thus limiting competition for the colonists' goods.
Sugar Act of 1764
The colonists reacted to British taxes by:
a.Forming trade associations
b.Refusing to buy British goods
c.Publishing pamphlet denouncing the loss of liberty
e.ALL THE ABOVE
a.Declared the right of the people to alter or abolish government
b.Declared the colonies independent from Britain
c.Contained a stirring call for equality and human rights
d.Contained a thorough list of grievance against the British crown
e.ALL THE ABOVE
The Declaration of Independence:
Not all northern delegates at the Convention opposed slavery, but those who were _______ wanted an immediate ban on importing slaves from Africa, prohibitions against the expansion of slavery into the western territories, and the adoption of plan for the gradual freeing slaves.
The _________ established itself in the name of "We the People of the United States."
b.Declaration of Independence
c.Articles of Confederation
e.ALL THE ABOVE
A________ exists when people in a country have a sense of common identity due to a
common origin, history, or ancestry, all of which the colonists shared.
Thereserve powers of the states, sometimes referred to as the _______, include the powers to protect the safety, health, and welfare of its citizens.
The writ of ________, provides the right of individuals who have been arrested and jailed to go before a judge who determines if their imprisonment is legal.
The Constitution limits the state governments from:
a.Passing bills of attainder
b.Passing ex post facto laws
c.Taxing imports and exports
d.Entering into any treaty or alliance with foreign nations
e. ALL THE ABOVE
The __________ clause of the constitution guarantees that states shall have a "Republican Form of Government," meaning that states cannot establish a pure direct democracy.
The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits states from denying
Voting rights on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
In recent years, lower courts have upheld the right of:
a.A student to wear a T-shirt making fun of President George W. Bush
b.A student to give a speech critical of homosexuality
c.Students who wore black armbands to protest the school's dress code
d.ALL THE ABOVE
The Bill of Rights placed into law some of the natural or unalienable rights that Thomas Jefferson spoke about in the:
Declaration of Independence
Too much freedom can lead to ________, a state in which everyone does as he or she chooses without regard to others.
Too much order can lead to _______, a state in which the people are not free to make decisions about the private aspects of their lives.
__________ is/are based on the expectations of equality under the law and relate to the duties of citizenship and to the opportunities for full participation in civic life.
The constitution protects the right to:
a.Trial by jury
b.Freedom of expression
c.Freedom of press
d.Freedom of assembly
e.ALL THE ABOVE
The _________ Amendment protects a very particular property right: the right to keep and bear arms.
Today, almost all of the provisions of the first, fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth amendments have been incorporated with the exception of:
a.Grand jury indictments
c.The seventh amendments right to jury in civil suits over $20
d.The third amendment protection against the quartering soldiers
e.ALL THE ABOVE
Attempts to limit civil liberties are more frequent in wartime or during other threats, given:
The governments increased concern for order and citizens increased concern about security
______________ are the rights related to the duties of citizenship and the opportunities for participation in civic life that the government is obliged to protect.
Liberals tend to be _______________ and conservatives tend to be _______________.
During the nation's first century and even thereafter, state and national governments actively discriminated against people on the basis of:
Race, gender, and ethnic background
Following the Civil War, the _______________ Amendment ended slavery, and the _______________ Amendment forbade states to deny any person "the equal protection of the laws."
Whether through family socialization or genes, parents have the biggest impact:
During a child's early life
______________ is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs about certain issues or officials.
How would you characterize the meaning of equality in America?
The concept of equality has significantly evolved and changed over time.
Sources of error in public opinion polls in which individuals feel obliged to give an opinion on something when, in reality, they are unaware of the issue or have no opinion on it are referred to as:
In Roper vs. Simmons, the U.S. Supreme Court sought to gauge public opinion on what constituted "cruel and unusual punishment" by looking at:
Laws passed by state legislatures
_____________ provide(s) the most common (and easiest) gateway for the people to express their opinions and to hold elected officials accountable.
Congress is _______________, that is, it is divided into two separate chambers, the House of Representatives and the Senate.
In 1947, Congress changed presidential succession, putting the _______________ directly behind the vice president in order of succession.
Speaker of the House
The requirements regarding elections that are in the U.S. Constitution indicate that the Framers wanted to set up barriers against:
To be a member of the House of Representatives and individual must
Reside in the state that he or she resides
Because a president in his second term cannot seek reelection, he is commonly referred to as a:
The formal selection of the president of the U.S. is in the hands of the:
Electors in the Electoral College
To counter the power of the veto, the Framers gave Congress the veto _______________, the power to overturn a presidential veto with a two-thirds vote in each chamber.
How many electoral votes does each state get?
Anamount equal to the number of senators and members of the House of Representatives
Typically, _______________ instruct federal employees to take a specific action or implement a policy in a particular way.
Depending on patterns of population growth or decline, states win or lose congressional seats with each new census. State legislatures are responsible for drawing the district lines, in a process known as:
Whena president signs a bill into law, he can issue _______________ written remarks that reflect his interpretation of the law, although they are not required or authorized by the Constitution.
Because the Framers knew that the country would grow, they required a count, or _______________, of the population every ten years, after which the number of congressional districts in each state would be adjusted to reflect population changes.
The highest-ranking minority party member in the House of Representatives is the _______________, and his or her main responsibility is crafting the minority party's position on an issue and serving as the public spokesperson for the party.
House minority leader
Franklin Delano Roosevelt's _______________ would have allowed him to appoint additional justices to the Supreme Court and so secure a majority favorable to him. However, Congress rejected Roosevelt's attempt to upset the checks and balances.
The technique of _______________ includes identifying and tracking potential supporters so that campaign strategists can design specific political messages tailored for each of the "voting profiles" found from the data. In 1996, for example, President Bill Clinton's reelection campaign sought to reach soccer moms—"busy suburban women devoted to their jobs and kids, who had real concerns about real presidential politics."
The president pro tempore is closely advised by the _______________, who is responsible for administering the rules of the Senate.
Monetary policy is under the control of the _______________, an independent executive agency.
Federal Reserve Board
A _______________ issue is a vague claim to a goal, such as a "strong economy," "improved education," or "greater national security." These are goals all candidates talk about and voters seek.
In the _______________ model, voting is understood to be shaped by the rules of the system, by political party behavior, by the ways candidates run their campaigns, and by the context of the election.
All Interest groups are based on the idea that members joining together in a group can?
Secure a shared benefit that otherwise would not be available to them.
The courts ruled in ________________ that only in exceptionally rare cases could the government stop the printing of a story, overturning a conviction and invalidating the law that lead to the conviction.
Near v. Minnesota
Quest for market share led to the competition over which newspaper could grab the most attention with sensational headlines and stories. Known as ________________, this form of news distorted the presentation of events and could mislead the public, all in the interest of sales.
The decline of newspapers raises concerns, because newspapers tend to contain more fact-based stories called_________________, as opposed to interpretive narratives that are reported on TV.
According to the ________________ Model, a process described as selective exposure, people secured information from sources that agreed with them, leading to the reinforcement of beliefs, not to a change of beliefs.
As a(n) __________, the students of Conceal and Carry on Campus discovered at the beginning of the chapter serves as a gateway to influences that allows students to make those views about gun rights known throughout the nation.
The mass media DO NOT ensure the government accountability and responsiveness by __________________ the news.
________________ is the government's ability to restrict the publication before it's published.
The landmark modern case on the freedom of the press and prior restraint was:
The Pentagon papers case
Interest Groups with the tax-exempt status, commnely referred to as ____________, are prohibited from engaging in any activity on behalf of a candidate or party in an election.
The simple pleasure of being surrounded by people with similar interests and perceptions and who share professional and personal concerns is an example of a(n) ___________________ benefit.
A(n) is a group of individuals who join together to choose who should be elected to office, whether by informal group voting or by a formal nominating process.
What do you call the document that lays out the party's core beliefs and policy proposals?
Parties also serve to organize members of congress and the state legislature into cohesive groups known as party_____________, that consistently vote for politics that the party promises in their platform.
In 1883 the ____________________ reinforced the civil service be reporting that government jobs be filed based on merit, not political connections.
A set of consistent political views about the way government should work is referred to as a:
After he took office, President FDR championed a vast array of new government programs, commonly referred to as the:
Kate Hanni demanded that the federal government live up to its responsibility of ensuring the safe travel of passengers, and got the Federal Aviation Administration, a subdivision of the _______________, to create new airline regulations.
Department of Transportabtion
Jennifer Gratz and Barbara Grutter claimed that the affirmative action policies at the University of Michigan denied their right to:
Equal protection of the law
Of all the components of American government, the _______________ is the most likely to have a direct impact on citizens' lives.
______________ is the power of courts to declare actions of Congress, the president, or state officials unconstitutional, and therefore void.
Legislatures often rely on specialists—the bureaucrats—to write the _______________ that implement the law.
A president's _______________ is a set of key advisors who are responsible for the areas under their jurisdiction.
The arrangement by which a politician appoints employees to public posts who pledge loyalty to him, is generally referred to as the _______________.
The primary organization responsible for controlling the flow of money in the United States is the:
Employees who report mismanagement, corruption, or illegal activity within their agencies are referred to as:
In _______________, Chief Justice Marshall clarified that the Constitution must be supreme and that regular laws cannot overrule constitutional requirements.
Marbury vs. Madison
A lawsuit filed by one person on behalf of that person plus all similarly situated individuals is referred to as a(n):
Once a case is assigned to a judge, the next step in a civil suit is _______________, when each side gets access to information relevant to its suit held by the other side.