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Fatty acid tails of the phospholipids in a bacterium that lives at very high temperatures has
long fatty acid tails
If you removed cholesterol from the membranes of human cells
the membrane would become too fluid, resulting in leakiness
What is the major difference between passive diffusion and facilitated diffusion?
involvement of a transport protein
When bacteria use an H+/sucrose symporter, ________ are moving down their concentration gradient, while _________ are moving up their concentration gradient.
H+ ions; sucrose molecules
one or more regions that are physically embedded in the hydrophobic region of the phospholipid bilayer
peripheral membrane proteins
noncovalently bound to regions of integral membrane proteins that project out from the membrane
factors affecting fluidity
length of fatty acyl tails, presence of double bounds in acyl tails, presence of chloesterol
synthesis of membrane phospholipids at ER membrane
fatty acids are attivated by CoA
fatty acids bond to GCP and are inserted into cytosolic leaflet of ER membrane via acyl transferase.
phosphate is removed by a phosphatase enzyme.
choline already linked to phosphate is attached via cholin phosphotransferase.
flippaess transfer some of the phospholipids to the other leaflet.
insertion of membrane proteins into ER membrane
protein begins synthesis in ER.
ER signal sequence is cleaved.
Polypeptide synthesis continues, and a hydrophobic transmembrane sequence is made as the polypeptide is being threaded through the channel.
synthsis complete sequence remains.
group of 14 sugars is build onto lipid dolichol in the ER membrane.
oligosaccharide transferase removes the carbohydrate tree from dolichol and transfers it toan asparagine.
occurs only in Golgi. addition of sugars to oxygen atom of serine or threonine
different types of channels
ligand-gated, intracellular, phosphorylation, voltage-gated, mechanosensitive
movement of solute across a membrane against its gradient from a region of low concentration to higher concentration
actively transport Na and K against their gradients by using the energy from ATP hydrolysis
steps of exocytosis
vesicle loaded with cargo is formed a protein coat wraps around it.
vesicle is released from the golgi
protein coat is shed
vesicle fuses with pm and releases cargo outside
steps of endocytosis
cargo binds to receptor and receptors aggregate causing coat proteins to bind to surrounding membrane.
pm invaginates as coat proteins cause a vesicle to form
vesicle is released
protein coat is shed
vesicle fuses with an internal organelle
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