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The nurse notices that the hispanic parents of a toddler who returns from surgery offer the child only the broth that comes on the clear liquid tray. Other liquids, including gelatin, popsicles, and juices, remain untouched. What explanation is most appropriate for this behavior?
"hot" remedies restore balance after surgery, which is considered a "cold" condition.
common parental practices and health beliefs among hispanic, Chinese, filipino, and arab cultures classify diseases, areas of the body, and illnesses as "hot" or "cold" and must be balanced to maintain health and prevent illness. The perception that surgery is a "cold" condition implies that only "hot" remedies such as soup, should be used to restore the healthy balance within the body
20 minutes after beginning a heat application, the client states that the heating pad no longer feels warm enough. What is the best response by the nurse?
"The body's receptors adapt over time as they are exposed to heat"
--thermal adaptation, which occurs 20-30 minutes after heat application
An african-american grandmother tells the nurse that her 4-year-old grandson is suffering with "Miseries". based on this statement, which focused assessment should the nurse conduct?
Inquire about the source and type of pain
Different cultural groups often have their own terms for health conditions. African-American clients may refer to pain as "miseries"
A female client with a nasogastric tube attached to low suction states that she is nauseated. The nurse assess that there has been no drainage through the NG tube in the last two hours. What action should the nurse take first?
Reposition the client on her side
The immediate priority is to determine if the tube is functioning correctly, which would then relieve the client's nausea. The least invasive intervention should be attempted first, followed by irrigating the NG tube with sterile normal saline and advancing the NG tube an additional 5cm, unless contraindicated. If these procedures do not work, the client may require an antiemetic.
A hospitalized male client is receiving NG tube feedings via a small-bore tube and a continuous pump infusion. He reports that he had a bad bout of severe coughing a few minutes ago, but feels fine now. What action is best for the nurse to take?
After clearing the tube with 30ml of air, check the pH of fluid withdrawn from the tube.
coughing, vomitting, and suctioning can precipitate displacement of the tip of the small bore feeding tube upward into the esophagus, placing the client at increased risk for aspiration. Checking the sample of fluid withdrawn from the tube (after clearing the tube with 30ml of air) for acidic (stomach) or alkaline (intestine) values is a more sensitive method for these tubes, and the nurse should assess tube placement in this way prior to taking any other action
A sub-saharan african widowed immigrant woman lives with her deceased husband's brother and his family, which includes the brother-in-law's children and the widow's adult children. each family member speaks fluent english. surgery was recommended for the client. What is the best plan to obtain consent for surgery for this client?
Tell the surgeon that the brother-in-law will decide after explanation of the proposed surgery is provided to him an the widow
Customary law in some sub-saharan countries encompasses wife inheritance and polygamy; the widow becomes the inherited wife of her husband's brother. In those rural areas women live in patriarchal family where decision are made by men. Most likely, the brother-in-law will make the decision for his inherited wife.
An older client who is a resident in a long term care facility has been bedridden for a week. Which finding should the nurse ID as a client risk factor for pressure ulcers?
Rashes in axillary, groin, and skin fold regions.
immobility, constant contact with bed clothing, and excessive heat and moisture in areas where air flow is limited contributes to bacterial and fungal growth, which increases the risk for rashes, skin breakdown, an the development of pressure ulcers.
The nurse is teaching a client proper use of an inhaler. When should the client administer the inhaler-delivered medication to demonstrate correct use of the inhaler?
during the inhalation
the client should be instructed to deliver the medication during the last part of inhalation. After medication is delivered, the client should remove the mouthpiece, keeping their lips closed and breath held for several seconds to allow for distribution of the medication. The client should deliver no more than two inhalations at a time.
an unlicensed UAP places a client in a left lateral position prior to administering a soap suds enema. Which instruction should the nurse provide the UAP?
Reposition in Sim's position with the client's weight on the anterior ilium.
The left sided Sim's position allows the enema solution to follow the anatomical course of the intestines and allows the best overall results, so the UAP should resposition the client in the Sim's position, which distributes the client's weight to the anterior ilium.
Which nutritional assessment data should the nurse collect to best reflect total muscle mass in an adolescent?
Upper arm circumference is an indirect measure of muscle mass.
Abnormal heart sounds are best heard with the bell of the stethoscope, which picks up lower-pitched sounds, that is placed at points on the anterior chest.
A client with pneumonia has a decrease in oxygen saturation from 94% to 88% while ambulating. Based on these findings, which intervention should the nurse implement first?
Assist the ambulating client back to bed.
An oxygen saturation below 90% indicates inadequate oxygenation. First, the client should be assisted to return to bed to minimize oxygen demands. Ambulation increases aeration of the lungs to prevent pooling of respiratory secretions, but the client's activity at this time is depleting oxygen saturation of the blood. Oxygen levels at different sites should be evaluated after the client returns to bed.
A client is receiving a cephalosporin antibiotic IV and complains of pain and irritation at the infusion site. The nurse observes erythema, swelling, and a red streak along the vessel above the IV access site. Which action should the nurse take at this time?
Initiate an alternative site for the IV infusion of the medication
A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered IV may cause vessel irritation. Rotating the infusion site minimizes the risk of thrombophlebitis, so an alternate infusion site should be initiated before administering the next dose.
A client who is 5'5" tall and weighs 200 lbs is scheduled for surgery the next day. What question is more important for the nurse to include during the preoperative assessment?
What vitamin and mineral supplements do you take?
Vitamin and mineral supplements may impact medications used during the operative period.
A client with chronic kidney disease selects a scrambled egg for his breakfast. What action should the nurse take?
Commend the client for selecting a high biologic value protein
Foods such as eggs and milk are high biologic proteins which are allowed because they are complete proteins and supply the essential amino acids that are necessary for growth and cell repair. Although a low-protein diet is followed , some protein is essential. Orange juice is rich in potassium and should not be encouraged.
An IV infusion terbutaline sulfate 5mg in 500ml of D5W, infusing at a rate of 30mcg/min, is prescribed for a client in premature labor. How many ml/hr should the nurse set the infusion pump?
180ml/hr = 500ml/5mg X 1mg/1000 mcg X 30 mcg/min X 60 min
During an outpatient clinic, the nurse assesses a client with a severe osteoarthritis using a goniometer. Which finding should the nurse expect to measure?
Degree of flexion and extension of the client's knee joint
The goniometer is two-piece ruler that is jointed in the middle with a protractor like measuring device that is placed over a joint as the indiviudal extends or flexes the joint to measure the degrees of flexion and extension on the protractor.
dopplers measure blood flow
calipers measure body fat
Which response by a client with a nursing diagnosis of "spiritual distress" indicates to the nurse that a desired outcome measure has been met?
Accepts that punishment from God is not related to illness
Acceptance that she is not being punished by God indicates a desired outcome for some degree of resolution of spiritual distress.
The nurse notices that the mother of a 9-year-old Vietnamese child always looks at the floor when she talks to the nurse. What action should the nurse take?
Continue asking the mother questions about the child
Eye-contact is a culturally-influenced form of non-verbal communication. In some non-Western cultures, such as the Vietnamese culture, a client or family member may avoid eye-contact as a form of respect, so the nurse should continue to ask the mother questions about the child.
The nurse is performing nasotracheal suctioning. After suctioning the client's trachea for 15 seconds, large amounts of thick yellow secretions return. What action should the nurse implement next?
Re-oxygenate the client before attempting to suction again
Suctioning should not be continued for longer than ten to fifteen seconds, since the client's oxygenation is compromised during this time.
At the time of the first dressing change, the client refuses to look at her mastectomy incision. The nurse tells the client that the incision is healing well, but the client refuses to talk about it. What would an appropriate response to this client's silence?
It is OK if you dont want to talk about your surgery. I will be available when you are ready.
This displays sensitivity and understanding without judging the client.
While instructing a male client's wife in the performance of passive ROM exercises to his contracted shoulder, the nurse observes that she is holding his arm above and below the elbow. What nursing action should the nurse implement?
Acknowledge that she is supporting the arm correctly.
The wife is performing the passive ROM correctly, therefore the nurse should acknowledge this fact.
During the initial morning assessment, a male client denies dysuria but reports that his urine appears dark amber. Which intervention should the nurse implement?
Encourage additional oral intake of juices and water.
Dark amber urine is characteristic of fluid volume deficit, and the client should be encouraged to increase fluid intake.
In developing a plan of care for a client with dementia, the nurse should remember that confusion in the elderly...
often follows relocation to new surroundings
Relocation often results in confusion among elderly clients -- moving is stressful for anyone.
During the admission interview, which technique is most efficient for the nurse to use when obtaining information about signs and symptoms of a client's primary health problem?
Lay descriptors of health problems can be vague and non specific. To efficiently obtain specific information, the nurse should use closed-ended questions that focus on common signs and symptoms about a client's primary health problem
The nurse is teaching a client with numerous allergies how to avoid allergens. Which instruction should be included in this teaching plan?
Avoid any types of sprays, powders, and perfumes.
The client with allergies should be instructed to reduce any exposure to pollen, dust, fumes, odors, sprays, powders, and perfumes. The client should be encouraged to wear a mask when working around dust or pollen. Washing clothes will not prevent an allergic reaction to some fabrics. Pollen count is related to allergens and the client should be instructed to stay indoors when the pollen count is high
When assessing a client with wrist restraints, the nurse observes that the fingers on the right hand are blue. What action should the nurse implement first?
Loosen the right wrist restraint.
The priority nursing action is to restore circulation by loosening the restraint because blue fingers indicates decreased circulation.
At the beginning of the shift, the nurse assesses a client is admitted from the PACU. When should the nurse document the client's findings?
Immediately after the assessments are completed.
Documentation should occur immediately after any component of the nursing process, so assessments should be entered in the client's medical record as readily as findings are obtained.
An elderly client with a fractured left hip is on strict bedrest. Which nursing measure is essential to the client's nursing care?
Gently lift the client when moving into a desired position.
To avoid shearing forces when repositioning, the client should be lifted gently across a surface.
Reddened areas should not be massaged since this may increase damage to already traumatized skin. To control pain and muscle and spasms, active ROM may be limited to the affected leg.
On admission, a client presents a signed living will that includes a DNR rx. When the client stops breathing, the nurse performs CPR and successfully revives the client. What legal issues could be brought against the nurse?
Civil laws protect individual rights and include intentional torts, such as assault (an intentional threat to engage in harmful contact with another) or battery (unwanted touching). Performing any procedure against the client's wishes can potentially poise a legal issue, such as battery, even if the procedure is of questionable benefit to the client.
JW: Blood transfusions are forbidden
J: autopsy of the body is prohibited
B: Alcohol use in any form and the use of drugs.
The center of gravity for an elderly person is the...
The center of gravity for adults is the hips. However, as the person grows older, a stopped posture is common because of the changes from osteoporosis and normal bone degeneration, and the knees, hips, and elbows flex. This stooped posture results in the upper torso becoming the center of gravity for older persons.
A client's infusion of NS infiltrated earlier today, and approximately 500 ml of saline infused into the subQ tissue. The client is now complaining of excruciating arm pain and demanding stronger pain medications. What initial action is most important for the nurse to take?
Measure the pulse volume and capillary refill distal to the infiltration.
Pain and diminished pulse volume are signs of compartment syndrome, which can progress to complete loss of peripheral pulse in the extremity. Compartment syndrome occurs when external pressure (usually from a cast), or internal pressure (usually from subQ infused fluid), exceeds capillary perfusion pressure resulting in decreased blood flow to the extremity.
The nurse is administering medications through a NGT which is connected to suction. After ensuring correct tube placement, what action should the nurse take next?
Flush the tube with water.
The NGT should be flushed before, after, and in between each medication administered. Once all meds are administered, the NGT should be clamped for 20 mins.
The nurse plans to obtain health assessment information from a primary source. Which option is a primary source for the completion of the health assessment?
A primary source of information for all health assessment is the client.
Healthcare provider, family members, and previous medical records are secondary. Subjective data can only be provided directly from the client.
When conducting an admission assessment, the nurse should ask the client about the use of complimentary healing practices. Which statement is accurate regarding the use of these practices?
Many complimentary healing practices can be used in conjunction with conventional practices.
Conventional approaches to healthcare can be depersonalizing and often fail to take into consideration all aspects of an individual, including body, mind, and spirit. Often complimentary healing practices can be used in conjunction with conventional medical practices, rather than interfering with conventional practices, causing adverse effects, or replacing medical care.
A client with acute hemorrhagic anemia is to receive four units of packed RBC as rapidly as possible. Which intervention is most important for the nurse to implement?
Ensure the accuracy of the blood type match
All interventions should be implemented prior to administering blood, but ensuring the accuracy of the blood has the highest priority. Any time blood is administered, the nurse should ensure the accuracy of the blood type match in order to prevent possible hemolytic reaction.
The nurse witnesses the signature of a client who has signed an informed consent. Which statement best explains this nursing responsibility?
The client voluntarily signed the form.
The nurse signs the consent form to witness that the client voluntarily signs the consent, that the client's signature is authentic, and the client is otherwise competent to give consent. It is the healthcare provider's responsibility to ensure the client fully understands the procedure.
An elderly client who requires frequent monitoring fell and fractured a hip. Which nurse is at greatest risk for a malpractice judgement?
The nurse who transferred the client to the chair when the fall occurred.
The four elements of malpractice are:
1. breach of duty owed
2. failure to adhere to the recognized standard of care
3. direct causation of injury
4. evidence of actual injury
The hip fx is the actual injury and the standard of care was "frequent monitoring"
which action is most important for the nurse to implement when donning sterile gloves?
keep gloved hands above the elbows.
Gloved hands held below waist level are considered unsterile.
A client who is in hospice care complains of increasing amounts of pain. The healthcare provider prescribes an analgesic every four hours PRN. Which action should the nurse implement?
Give an around the clock schedule for administration of analgesics.
The most effective management of pain is achieved using an around the clock schedule that provides analgesic medications on a regular basis and in a timely manner. Analgesics are less effective if pain persists until it is severe, so an analgesic medication should be administered before the client's pain peaks.
The nurse is completing a mental assessment for a client who is demonstrating slow thought processes, personality changes, and emotional lability. Which area of the brain controls these neuro-cognitive functions?
The frontal love of the cerebrum controls higher mental activities, such as memory, intellect, language, emotions, and personality.
The thalamus is an afferent relay center in the brain that directs impulses to the cerebral cortex.
The hypothalamus regulates body temperature, appetite, maintains wakeful state, and links higher centers with the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems, such as the pituitary.
Parietal lobe is the location of sensory and motor functions.
An elderly resident of long-term care facility is no longer able to perform self-care and is becoming progressively weaker. The resident previously requested that no resuscitative efforts be performed, and the family requests hospice care. What action should the nurse implement first?
Notify the healthcare provider of the family's request.
The nurse should first communicate with the healthcare provider. Hospice care is provided for clients with a limited life expectancy, which must be identified by the healthcare provider. Once the healthcare provider supports the transfer to hospice care, the nurse can collaborate with the hospice staff and healthcare provider to determine when the client should be moved.
The nurse is instructing a client with high cholesterol about diet and life style modification. What comment from the client indicates that the teaching has been effective?
I will limit my intake of beef to 4 oz per week.
Limiting saturated fat from animal food sources to no more than 4oz per week is an important diet modification for lowering cholesterol. To be effective in reducing cholesterol, the client should exercise 30 minutes per day, or at least 4-6 times per week. Red meat and all proteins do not need to be eliminated to lower cholestrol, but should be restricted to lean cuts of red meat and smaller portions (2oz servings). The low density lipoproteins need to decrease rather than increase.
The nurse is preparing to give medications through an NGT. Which nursing action should prevent complications during administration?
Mix each medication individually.
Medications should be mixed separately to prevent clumping.
After completing an assessment and determining that a client has a problem, which action should the nurse perform next?
Determine the etiology of the problem
Before planning care, the nurse should determine etiology or cause, of the problem bc this will help determine the nursing interventions and goals.
Examination of a client complaining of itching on his right arm reveals a rash made of multiple flat areas of redness ranging from pinpoint to 0.5cm in diameter. How should the nurse record this finding?
Localized red rash comprised of flat areas, pinpoint to 0.5 cm in diameter.
Macules are localized flat skin discolorations less than 1cm in diameter. However, when recording such a finding the nurse should describe the appearance rather than simply naming the condition.
Vesicles are fluid filled blisters
Papules are solid elevated lesions
Petechiae are pinpoint red to purple skin discolorations that occur with bleeding---do not itch
The nurse assigns the UAP to obtain vital signs from a very anxious client. What instructions should the nurse give the UAP?
Report the results of the vital signs to the nurse.
Interpretation of vital signs is the responsibility of the nurse, so the UAP should report vital sign measurements to the nurse.
Interpreting vital signs is beyond the UAP's scope of practice!
The nurse is assessing the nutritional status of several clients. Which client has the greatest nutritional need for additional intake of protein?
A lactating woman nursing her 3-day-old infant.
A lactating woman has the greatest need for additional protein intake due to metabolic protein demands of lactation.
What is the most important reason for starting IV infusions in the upper extremities rather than the lower extremities of adults?
A decreased flow rate could result in the formation of a thrombosis.
Venous return is usually better in the upper extremities. Cannulation of the veins in the lower extremities increases the risk for thrombus formation which, if dislodged, could be life-threatening.
A resident in a skilled nursing facility for short-term rehab after a hip-replacement tells the nurse, "I don't want anymore blood taken for those useless tests>" Which narrative documentation should the nurse enter in the client's medical record?
Healthcare provider notified of client's refusal to have blood specimens collected for testing.
When a client refuses treatment, the exact words of the client regarding the client's refusal of care should be documented in narrative format.
A client who has been NPO for 3 days is receiving an infusion of D5W 0.45 NS with potassium chloride 20mEq at 83ml/hr. The client's eight hour urine output is 400ml, BUN is 15mg/dl, lungs are clear bilaterally, serum glucose is 120 mg/dl, and the serum potassium is 3.7 mEq/L. Which action is most important for the nurse to implement?
Document in the medical record that these normal findings are expected outcomes.
8hr urine= 400-480
Glucose: below 125
An adult male client with a history of hypertension tells the nurse that he is tired of taking antihypertensive medications and is going to try spiritual meditation instead. What should be the nurse's first response?
"It is important that you continue your medication while learning to meditate"
The prolonged practice of meditation may lead to reduced need for antihypertensive medications. However, medications must be continued while the physiologic response to meditation is monitored. The healthcare provider should be informed, but permission is not required to meditate. Although it is true that this complimentary therapy might be effective, it is essential that the client continue with antihypertensive medications until the effect of meditation can be measured.
Three days following surgery, a male client observes his colostomy for the first time. He becomes quite upset and tells the nurse that it is much bigger than he expected. What is the best response by the nurse?
Instruct the client that the stoma will become smaller when the initial swelling diminishes.
Post-op swelling causes enlargement of the stoma. The nurse can teach the client that the stoma will become smaller when the swelling is diminished. This will help reduce the client's anxiety and promote acceptance of the colostomy.
An elderly male client who is unresponsive following a CVA is receiving bolus enteral feedings through a G tube. What is the best client position for administration of the bolus tube feedings?
The client should be positioned in a semi-sitting (fowler's) position during feeding to decrease occurrence of aspiration. A G tube, known a PEG tube, due to placement by a percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy procedure, is inserted directly into the stomach through an incision in the abdomen for long-term administration of nutrition and hydration in the debilitated client.
During the daily nursing assessment, a client begins to cry and states that the majority of family and friends have stopped calling and visiting. What action should the nurse take?
Listen and show interest as the client expresses these feelings.
When a client begins to cry and express feelings, a therapeutic nursing intervention is to listen and show interest as the client expresses feelings.
The nurse observes that a male client has removed the covering from an ice pack applied to his knee. What action should the nurse first take?
Observe the appearance of the skin under the ice pack
The first action taken by the nurse should be to assess the skin for any possible thermal injury. If no injury to the skin has occurred, the nurse can take other actions like instructing the client regarding the need for the covering, reapplying the covering after filling with fresh ice, and asking the client how long the ice was applied to the skin.
A male client being discharged with a rx for the bronchodilator theophylline tells the nurse that he understands he is to take three doses of the medication each daily. Since, at the time of discharge, time-released capsules are not available, which dosing schedule should the nurse advise the client to follow?
8am, 4pm, and midnight
Theophylline should be administered on a regular around the clock schedule to provide the best brochodilating effect and reduce the potential for adverse effects. Food may alter absorption of the medication so it does not need to be taken with meals.
When evaluating a client's plan of care, the nurse determines that a desired outcome was not achieved. Which action should the nurse implement first?
Note which actions were not implemented
First, the nurse should review which actions in the original plan were not implemented in order to determine why the original plan did not produce the desired outcome. Appropriate revisions can then be made, which may include revising the expected outcome, or identifying a new nursing dx.
Which snack food is best for the nurse to provide a client with myasthenia gravis who is at risk for altered nutritional status?
The client with myasthenia gravis is at high risk for altered nutrition bc of fatigue and muscle weakness resulting in dysphagia. Snacks that are semisolid, such as pudding are easy to swallow and require minimal chewing effort, and provide calories and protein.
The nurse is caring for a client who is receiving 24 hr TPN via central line at 54ml/hr. When initially assessing the client, the nurse notes that the TPN solution has run out and the next TPN solution is not available. What immediate action should the nurse take?
Infuse 10% dextrose and water at 54ml/hr
TPN is discontinued gradually to allow the client to adjust to decreased levels of glucose. Administering 10% dextrose in water at the prescribed rate will keep the client from experiencing hypoglycemia until the next TPN solution is available. The client could experience a hypoglycemic rxn if the current level of glucose is not maintained or if the TPN is discontinued abruptly. --The healthcare provider can do nothing about this situation
The nurse is evaluating client learning about a low-sodium diet. Selection of which meal would indicate to the nurse that this client understands the dietary restrictions?
Skim milk, turkey salad, roll, and vanilla ice cream
While containing some sodium, these are considered low-sodium foods. Bacon, canned soups, especially those with seafood, hard cheeses, macaroni, and most diet drinks are very high in Na.
A 73 y/o female client had a hemiarthroplasty of the left hip yesterday due to a fx resulting from a fall. In reviewing hip precautions with the client, which instruction should the nurse include in this client's teaching plan?
"place a pillow between your knees while lying in bed to prevent hip dislocation"
The client's affected hip joint following hemiarthroplasty (partial hip replacement) is at risk of dislocation for 6 months to a year following the procedure. Hip precautions to prevent dislocation include placing a pillow between the knees to maintain abduction of the hips. Clients should be instructed to avoid bending at the waist, to seek assistance for both standing and walking until they are stable on a walker or cane, and to take medication 20 - 30 minutes prior to PT
The UAPs working on a chronic neuro unit ask the nurse to help them determine the safest way to transfer an elderly client with left-sided weakness from the bed to the chair. What method describes the correct transfer procedure for this client?
Move the chair parallel to the right side of the bed, and stand the client on the right foot.
This uses the client's stronger side, for weight-bearing during the transfer, and is the safest approach to take.
A female client asks the nurse to find someone who can translate into her native language her concerns about a treatment. Which actions should the nurse take?
Request and document the name of the certified translator.
A certified translator should be requested to ensure the exchanged information is reliable and unaltered. To adhere to legal requirements in some states, the name of the translator should be documented. Client information that is translated is private and protected under HIPPA rules.
A young mother of three children complains of increased anxiety during her annual physical exam. What information should the nurse obtain first?
Caffeine, sugars, and alcohol can lead to increased levels of anxiety, so a nutritional history should be obtained first so that health teaching can be initiated if necessary.
P- palliative: what makes the pain better or worse; how did OTC drugs work?
Q- Quality-- what does the pain feel like? Jabbing/dull/achy/sharp etc
R-- radiating -- where does the pain start and does it radiate anywhere?
S-severity-- rate on a scale of 0-10
T-- Timing-- is it better or worse at a certain time of day/after or before you eat?
U--you-- pain is personal; how is the pain affecting you?
A nurse is caring for a patient who has just had major surgery to resect a portion of colon. What is the most reliable sign that the patient has significant post-op pain?
The patient's self report is the strongest evidence that he has significant pain.
There is no objective test by which pain can be measured. Pain is a subjective experience and is highly individualized.
Wincing and guarding may be associated with pain but are observations by the nurse, not the patient's self-report of pain.
What will the nurse instruct the nursing assistive personnel to do regarding the management of a patient's pain?
let me know 30 minutes before you transport her so i can administer pain medication
NAP can not assess pain-- only nurses can
Which observation indicates that a patient's pain medication has been effective in managing pain that she rated 6/10 on a pain rating scale before intervention?
The patient's self report of less pain indicates that the pain management has been effective.
A patient with a herniated disk is scheduled for surgery to fuse two vertebrae in her cervical spine. Which activity is most likely to be a palliative factor for this patient?
Performing neck, back, and shoulder exercises rx by a PT
The nurse notices that his patient has none of the signs and symptoms normally associated with pain, such as diaphoresis, tachycardia, and hypertension. The patient does, however, seem moody and a bit uncooperative. What conclusion does the nurse draw?
The absence of physiological s/s is associated with chronic pain.
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