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Potassium, sodium, and chlorine are trace elements


Ionic bonds break apart in water more easily than covalent bonds do


A solution is a mixture composed of two or more substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined


Any chemical reaction that removes electrons from an atom is called
a. reduction
b. condensation
c. hydrolysis
d. anabolism
e. oxidation

e. oxidation

The breakdown of glycogen is an example of an ___reaction
a. exergonic
b. endergonic
c. exchange
d. synthesis
e. equilibrium

a. exergonic

Digestive enzymes breakdown the starch in a potato into thousands of glucose molecules. This exemplifies an _____reaction
a. synthesis
b. decomposition
c. exchange
d. anabolic
e. reductive

e. reductive

Triglycerides are molecules consisting of one 3-carbon compound called_____bound to three___
a. eicosanoid; fatty acids
b. steroid; glycerols
c. eicosanoid; steroid
d. glycerol; fatty acids
e. steroid; fatty acids

d glycerol; fatty acids

___are major components of cell membranes, and are said to be___
a. triglycerides; hydrophobic
b. steroids; hydrophilic
c. bile acids; fat-soluble
d. eicosanoids; water soluble
e. phospholipids; amphiphilic

E. phospholipids; amphiphilic

Which of these is always hydrophobic
a. glucose
b. cholesterol
c amino acids
d proteins
e disaccharides

b cholesterol

Proteins can serve all the following functions except
a catalyze metabolic reactions
b give structural strength to cells and tissues
c produce muscular and other forms of movement
d regulate transport of solutes into and out of cells
e store hereditary information

e. store hereditary information

A drastic conformational change in proteins in response to conditions such as extreme heat or ph will lead to loss of a protein's functions. This drastic
change in three-dimensional shape is called
a contamination
b denaturation
c saturation
d sedimentation
e deconformation

b denaturation

The spinal cord conducts signals up and down the body passing through gray and white matter, respectively.


cervical and lumbar enlargements are wide points in the spinal cord marking the emergence of motor nerves


each portion of the spinal cord served by a spinal nerve is called a segment of the cord


nerve fibers in a given tract in the white matter are similar in origin, destination and function


motor signals typically begin in an upper motor neuron in the thalamus


the signals that control your handwriting travel down the spinal cord in
a the tectospinal tracts
b the corticospinal tracts
c the lateral vestibulospinal tracts
d the medial vestibulospinal tracts
e the spinocerebellar tracts

b the corticospinal tracts

many upper motor neurons synapse with lower motor neurons in
a the posterior horns
b the anterior horns
c the posterior column
d the anterior column
e the posterior root ganglion

b the anterior horns

which of the following sensory functions involves neurons in the posterior root ganglia?
a smell
b hearing
c touch
d taste
e vision

c touch

cerebrospinal fluid fills in the space between the
a dural sheath and dura mater
b dural sheath and vertebral bones
c dua mater and arachnoid mater
d arachnoid mater and pia mater
e dura mater and pia mater

d arachnoid mater and pia mater

which of the following structures is the richest in lipid content?
a gray matter
b white matter
c arachnoid mater
d dura mater
e pia mater

b white matter

gray matter contains
a glial cells, axons of motor neurons, and schwann cells
b glial cells and myelinated fibers
c neurosomas, dendrites, and proximal parts of axons of neurons
d the distal part of axons of lower order motor neurons
e glial cells only

c neurosomas, dendrites, and proximal parts of axons of neurons

____carry motor commands from the brain along the spinal cord
a both anterior and posterior roots
b ascending tracts
c spinal nerves
d cranial nerves
e descending tracts

e descending tracts

second-order neurons synapse with third-order neurons in the
a thalamus
b dorsal root ganglion
c spinal cord
d cerebral cortex
e medulla oblongata

a thalamus

___keeps nerve fibers insulated from one another
a perineurium
b endoneurium
c fascicles
d epineurium
e blood vessels

b endoneurium

The ventral rami of the spinal nerves form nerve plexuses in all regions except
a the thoracic region
b the brachial region
c the cervical region
d the lumbar region
e the sacral region

a the thoracic region

the cervical plexus gives origin to the ____nerve
a oculomotor
b sciatic
c musculocutaneous
d radial
e phrenic

e phrenic

which of the following nerves originates in the lumboscaral plexus?
a axillary
b sciatic
c phrenic
d ilioinguinal
d ebturator

b scaitic

a mixed nerve consists of both
a myelinated and unmyelinated fibers
b glial cells and nerve cells
c afferent and efferent fibers
d association and integration neurons
e spinal and cranial fibers

c afferent and efferent fibers

which of the following branches of spinal nerve have somas of solely sensory neurons?
a posterior (dorsal) root
b anterior (ventral) root
c posterior ramus
d anterior ramus
e meningeal branch

a posterior dorsal root

The bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5 is called the
a medullary cone
b cauda equina
c lumbar enlargement
d cervical enlargement
e spinal cord

b cauda equina

somatosensory refers to these sensory signals except the sensory signals from
a bones and muscles
b joints
c proprioceptors
d the viscera
e the skin

d the viscera

neurosomas of the posterior root are located in the ____, whereas neurosomas of the anterior root are located in the
a posterior root ganglion; gray matter
b posterior root ganglion; white matter
c gray matter; white matter
d posterior root; anterior root
e white matter; gray matter

a posterior root ganglion; gray matter

a ___is a cordlike organ composed of numerous___
a nerve fiber nerves
b nerve fiber' axions
c nerve; axons
d nerve fiber; neurosomas
e nerve; neurosomas

c nerve; axons

which one of the following best describes the order of a somatic reflex


which of the following groups of muscles have the most spindles?
a muscles of the hand
b muscles of the back
c muscles of the thigh
d muscles of the middle ear
e muscles of the torso

a muscles of the hand

these are all properties of reflexes except
a reflex responses are very predictable
b reflexes are responses to sensory inputs
c reflexes are quick responses of the nervous system
d reflexes are not voluntary
e reflexes are spontaneous actions of the nervous system

e reflexes are spontaneous actions of the nervous system

a muscle spindle contains mostly
a glial cells
b muscle fibers
c fascicles
d nerves
e nerve cells

b muscles fibers

a nurse pricks your finger to type your blood. you flinch at the pain, pulling your hand back this is called the
a painful reflex
b stretch reflex
b flexor reflex
d tendon reflex
e crossed extension reflex

c flexor reflex

the quickest reflex arcs involve only two neurons, thus forming ___reflex arcs
a ipsilateral
b contralateral
c polysynapitic
d monosynaptic
e autonomic

d monosynoaptic

naked dna is called chromatin


dna is composed of double-ring nitrogenous bases, whereas rna is composed of single ring nitrogenous bases


a gene can be defined as an information-containing segment of rna that codes for the production of a polypetide


after mitosis each chromosome consists of two parallel filaments called sister chromatids


eye color is a normal polgenic trait


a___contains the necessary information for the production of a molecule of rna
a genome
b gene
c nucleotide
d genetic code
e codon

b gene

all the dna in one 23-chromosomes set is called
a the chromosome
b a chromatid
c chromatin
d the gene
e the genome

c chromatin

the human genome consists of
a about 35,000 genes
b over 2 million genes
c A,T,C, G, and U
d dna and rna
e the genotype and phenotype

d dna and rna

coying genetic information from dna into rna is called___, whereas using the information contained in mrna to make a polypeptide is called ___
a transcription; translation
b translation; transcription
c dna replication; translation
d dna duplication; transcription
e dna translation; rna transcription

a transcription; translation

all of the following are directly involved in translation except
a dna
b mrna
c trna
d rrna
e ribosomes

d rrna

transcription occurs in the ___, but most translation occurs in the
a nucleus; cytoplasm
b nucleus; nucleolus
c cytoplassm; nucleus
d nucleolus; cytoplasm
e nucleolus; rough endoplasmic reticulum

a nucleus; cytoplasm

the genetic code is the correspondence between the ___and the ___ that they represent
a dna; 20 amino acids
b dna; 64 aa
c mrna anticodons; 20 aa
d mrna condobs. 64aa
e mrna condons; 20 aa

e mRNA condons; 20 amino acids

all of the following participate in dna replication except
a dna
b ribosomes
c dna ligase
d dna helicase
e dna polymerase

b ribosomes

all these can cause a mutation except

e a mistake made by the rna polymerase

cell division is stimulated by_____and suppressed ny___
a mitosis; cytokinesis
b mitosis'


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