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One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is


Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by


A child's temperament is likely to be

A product of their parenting style

Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a

Theory of Mind

As people progress through adulthood, women become

More assertive and men become more empathetic.

Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they

They impose rules and expect obedience

What is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen?


Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be


Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.

independence; interdependence

Men and women are most likely to differ in their


An awareness that children's temperaments influence parents' child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to

Blame parents for our own dysfunctional characteristics

When children grow up and leave home, mothers most frequently report feeling


A human sperm cell contains

23 Chromosomes

According to Erikson, teens who suffer role confusion have not yet

Solidified a sense of identity

Parents in Asian cultures are more likely than parents in Westernized cultures to encourage children to

Participate in Household activities

The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of


Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.


Compared with northern Europeans, people from Mediterranean cultures are

More likely to be emotionally expressive and less likely to be punctual.

Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be

Most severe among those with high levels of drug tolerance.

Although Max never experiences caffeine withdrawal symptoms, he feels that he needs coffee every morning as part of his daily routine. Max best illustrates

psychological dependence

Which of the following disorders is characterized by the temporary cessations of breathing while asleep?

Sleep apena

Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that

Many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help.

University men were shown an erotic movie clip. Compared with those who thought they had recently consumed a nonalcoholic beverage, men who believed they had recently consumed an alcoholic beverage were________ likely to report having strong sexual fantasies and ________ likely to report having feelings of guilt.

More; Less

Genital arousal is most likely to be associated with

Paradoxical sleep.

When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were between ________ years of age.

10 and 30

The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________.

fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence

Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during

Early adulthood

A human egg contains ________ chromosome and a human sperm contains ________ chromosome.


Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for

Enhancing Memory

Under the influence of alcohol, angered people are ________ likely to be aggressive than they would otherwise be and restaurant patrons are ________ likely to tip generously than they otherwise would.

more; more

Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of

Selective breeding. selective mating.

Compared with when they were only 20 years old, 60-year-olds

Spend less time in Stage 1 sleep

Dreams often involve sudden emotional reactions and surprising changes in scene. This best serves to support the theory that dreams

Are triggered by random bursts of neural activity.

People can be hypnotically induced to

Report significant relief from the pain of placing their arms in ice water.

According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.

Concrete Operational

Professor Smith emphasizes that gender similarities and differences are products of a continuous interplay among genetically predisposed traits, culturally shaped roles, and personally constructed expectations and assumptions. The professor's emphasis best illustrates

A biopychnological approach

During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?


When cocaine is snorted, free-based, or injected, it produces a rush of euphoria by


The British government classifies the highly addictive crystallized form of ________ as one of the most dangerous of drugs.


Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called


When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin, she began to develop pain and an intense craving for the drug. Celeste was experiencing symptoms of


Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities. This most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to

parental influences

Chromosomes are contained within

bone, blood, brain, and sperm cells

At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates

stranger anxiety.

Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of


Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation?

activation-synthesis theory

University College London volunteers used a mechanical device to press on another volunteer's finger, after feeling pressure on their own finger. They typically responded to the pressure on their finger

more pressure than they had just experienced

The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain


The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n)


Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two variables

Vary together

Dr. Wolski does research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?


Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from

a sample to a population

To study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems working together; other participants were told to solve problems working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ________ group.


If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are

negatively correlated.

Differences between two sample averages are most likely to be statistically significant if

the difference between the samples is large.

Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as


Endorphins are

they reduce the sensation of pain and affect emotions.

What method is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?

The experiment

The symmetrical bell-shaped figure used to represent the distribution of many physical and psychological characteristics is called a

Normal Distribution

After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard, Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his

parasympathetic nervous system.

The various perspectives employed by psychologists

often complement one another.

Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?

the reticular formation

When a statistical average is reported in the news, it is most important for readers to

recognize the potential for illusory correlation.

The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by

blood chemistry

The part of the cerebral cortex that directs the muscle movements involved in speech is known as

Broca's area

Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy." These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of

Wording Effects

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the

endocrine glands

Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding

Nature VS. Nurture

The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called


The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the

Autonomic Nervous System

Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the

autonomic system

In a psychological experiment, the experimental factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ________ variable.


Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your


The most foolproof way of testing whether a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is truly effective is to use

With a randomized experimental design.

Endorphin agonists are likely to _______ one's immediate pain, and endorphin antagonists are likely to _______ one's immediate pain.

Decrease; Increase

Introspection was the basic research tool used by ________ in order to study people's inner sensations and mental images.

Edward Titchener

Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by

operational definitions

The part of the central nervous system that carries information from your senses to your brain and motor-control information to your body parts is the


What is an example of a number correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?


A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of

Sexual Motivation

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain is called a(n)

(EEG) Electroencephalogram

When a person speaks, brain waves and bloodflow are especially likely to reveal increased activity in the

Right Hemisphere

The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain

the state of arousal

Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of

The mere exposure effect

The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social-psychological research on


When 68-year-old Mrs. Blake had a flat tire on a fairly isolated highway, she received help from a passerby in less than 10 minutes. One year later, when she had a flat tire on a busy freeway, an hour elapsed before someone finally stopped to offer assistance. Mrs. Blake's experience best illustrates

the bystander effect

To a social psychologist, a perceived incompatibility of goals is indicative of


Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research on sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings?


During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's

absolute threshold

Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ______ of a sound.


Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called


The brain's release of endorphins reduces


An integrated understanding of pain control in terms of mental distraction, the release of endorphins, and the presence of empathic caregivers is most clearly provided by

Human Factor

When given a placebo that is said to relieve pain, we are likely to be soothed by the brain's release of


Infants who were exposed to the visual cliff

refused to cross over the "deep" side to their mothers

People who pour less juice when given a tall, thin glass rather than a short, wide glass are misled by the depth cue known as

horizontal- vertical illusion

The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as closer is


When the Moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This effect is primarily a result of

distance cues, which make the horizon moon seem farther away.

Color constancy refers to the fact that

objects are perceived to be the same color even if the light they reflect changes.

A perceptual set is a

"a mental predisposition that influences what we perceive

After hearing rumors about the outbreak of an infectious disease, Alyosha began to perceive his normal aches and pains as disease-related symptoms. His reaction best illustrates the impact of


In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was

the presentation of food in the dog's mouth

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)

unconditioned stimulus

In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)

conditioned responce

Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates


The cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on

an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS

Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by

biological predispostions

To assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a

Conditioned Stimulus

After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin's fear.

unconditioned stimulus

Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she feels less anxious when she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of

operant conditioning

Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as


A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)

discriminating stimulus.

Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.

fixed-interval; variable-ratio

Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.


Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.


According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by

external influences

A learned association between a response and a consequence is central to

Operant Conditioning

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of

observational learning

Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for

observational learning

In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as


Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as

the spacing effect

Elaine's memory of her Paris vacation is more positive today than it was last year just after she went. This best illustrates

rosy retrospection

When Sperling visually displayed three rows of three letters each for only one-twentieth of a second, research participants

had a momentary photographic memory of all nine letters.

The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ________ memory.


Echoic memory refers to

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.

"The Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of ________ memory.


An understanding of the distinction between implicit and explicit memories is most helpful for explaining

infantile amnesia

Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called

retrieval cues.

Déjà vu refers to the

the experience of feeling sure that one has witnessed or experienced a new situation

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