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Psychology 100

One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is
Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by
A child's temperament is likely to be
A product of their parenting style
Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a
Theory of Mind
As people progress through adulthood, women become
More assertive and men become more empathetic.
Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they
They impose rules and expect obedience
What is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen?
Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be
Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.
independence; interdependence
Men and women are most likely to differ in their
An awareness that children's temperaments influence parents' child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to
Blame parents for our own dysfunctional characteristics
When children grow up and leave home, mothers most frequently report feeling
A human sperm cell contains
23 Chromosomes
According to Erikson, teens who suffer role confusion have not yet
Solidified a sense of identity
Parents in Asian cultures are more likely than parents in Westernized cultures to encourage children to
Participate in Household activities
The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.
Compared with northern Europeans, people from Mediterranean cultures are
More likely to be emotionally expressive and less likely to be punctual.
Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be
Most severe among those with high levels of drug tolerance.
Although Max never experiences caffeine withdrawal symptoms, he feels that he needs coffee every morning as part of his daily routine. Max best illustrates
psychological dependence
Which of the following disorders is characterized by the temporary cessations of breathing while asleep?
Sleep apena
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that
Many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help.
University men were shown an erotic movie clip. Compared with those who thought they had recently consumed a nonalcoholic beverage, men who believed they had recently consumed an alcoholic beverage were________ likely to report having strong sexual fantasies and ________ likely to report having feelings of guilt.
More; Less
Genital arousal is most likely to be associated with
Paradoxical sleep.
When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were between ________ years of age.
10 and 30
The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________.
fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence
Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during
Early adulthood
A human egg contains ________ chromosome and a human sperm contains ________ chromosome.
Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for
Enhancing Memory
Under the influence of alcohol, angered people are ________ likely to be aggressive than they would otherwise be and restaurant patrons are ________ likely to tip generously than they otherwise would.
more; more
Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of
Selective breeding. selective mating.
Compared with when they were only 20 years old, 60-year-olds
Spend less time in Stage 1 sleep
Dreams often involve sudden emotional reactions and surprising changes in scene. This best serves to support the theory that dreams
Are triggered by random bursts of neural activity.
People can be hypnotically induced to
Report significant relief from the pain of placing their arms in ice water.
According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.
Concrete Operational
Professor Smith emphasizes that gender similarities and differences are products of a continuous interplay among genetically predisposed traits, culturally shaped roles, and personally constructed expectations and assumptions. The professor's emphasis best illustrates
A biopychnological approach
During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?
When cocaine is snorted, free-based, or injected, it produces a rush of euphoria by
The British government classifies the highly addictive crystallized form of ________ as one of the most dangerous of drugs.
Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called
When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin, she began to develop pain and an intense craving for the drug. Celeste was experiencing symptoms of
Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities. This most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to
parental influences
Chromosomes are contained within
bone, blood, brain, and sperm cells
At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates
stranger anxiety.
Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of
Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation?
activation-synthesis theory
University College London volunteers used a mechanical device to press on another volunteer's finger, after feeling pressure on their own finger. They typically responded to the pressure on their finger
more pressure than they had just experienced
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain
The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n)
Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two variables
Vary together
Dr. Wolski does research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?
Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from
a sample to a population
To study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems working together; other participants were told to solve problems working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ________ group.
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are
negatively correlated.
Differences between two sample averages are most likely to be statistically significant if
the difference between the samples is large.
Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as
Endorphins are
they reduce the sensation of pain and affect emotions.
What method is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?
The experiment
The symmetrical bell-shaped figure used to represent the distribution of many physical and psychological characteristics is called a
Normal Distribution
After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard, Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his
parasympathetic nervous system.
The various perspectives employed by psychologists
often complement one another.
Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
the reticular formation
When a statistical average is reported in the news, it is most important for readers to
recognize the potential for illusory correlation.
The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by
blood chemistry
The part of the cerebral cortex that directs the muscle movements involved in speech is known as
Broca's area
Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy." These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of
Wording Effects
Hormones are the chemical messengers of the
endocrine glands
Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding
Nature VS. Nurture
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the
Autonomic Nervous System
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the
autonomic system
In a psychological experiment, the experimental factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ________ variable.
Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your
The most foolproof way of testing whether a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is truly effective is to use
With a randomized experimental design.
Endorphin agonists are likely to _______ one's immediate pain, and endorphin antagonists are likely to _______ one's immediate pain.
Decrease; Increase
Introspection was the basic research tool used by ________ in order to study people's inner sensations and mental images.
Edward Titchener
Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by
operational definitions
The part of the central nervous system that carries information from your senses to your brain and motor-control information to your body parts is the
What is an example of a number correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of
Sexual Motivation
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain is called a(n)
(EEG) Electroencephalogram
When a person speaks, brain waves and bloodflow are especially likely to reveal increased activity in the
Right Hemisphere
The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain
the state of arousal
Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of
The mere exposure effect
The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social-psychological research on
When 68-year-old Mrs. Blake had a flat tire on a fairly isolated highway, she received help from a passerby in less than 10 minutes. One year later, when she had a flat tire on a busy freeway, an hour elapsed before someone finally stopped to offer assistance. Mrs. Blake's experience best illustrates
the bystander effect
To a social psychologist, a perceived incompatibility of goals is indicative of
Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research on sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings?
During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's
absolute threshold
Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ______ of a sound.
Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called
The brain's release of endorphins reduces
An integrated understanding of pain control in terms of mental distraction, the release of endorphins, and the presence of empathic caregivers is most clearly provided by
Human Factor
When given a placebo that is said to relieve pain, we are likely to be soothed by the brain's release of
Infants who were exposed to the visual cliff
refused to cross over the "deep" side to their mothers
People who pour less juice when given a tall, thin glass rather than a short, wide glass are misled by the depth cue known as
horizontal- vertical illusion
The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as closer is
When the Moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This effect is primarily a result of
distance cues, which make the horizon moon seem farther away.
Color constancy refers to the fact that
objects are perceived to be the same color even if the light they reflect changes.
A perceptual set is a
"a mental predisposition that influences what we perceive
After hearing rumors about the outbreak of an infectious disease, Alyosha began to perceive his normal aches and pains as disease-related symptoms. His reaction best illustrates the impact of
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
the presentation of food in the dog's mouth
In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)
unconditioned stimulus
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)
conditioned responce
Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates
The cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on
an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS
Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
biological predispostions
To assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a
Conditioned Stimulus
After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin's fear.
unconditioned stimulus
Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she feels less anxious when she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of
operant conditioning
Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as
A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)
discriminating stimulus.
Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
fixed-interval; variable-ratio
Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by
external influences
A learned association between a response and a consequence is central to
Operant Conditioning
Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of
observational learning
Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for
observational learning
In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as
Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as
the spacing effect
Elaine's memory of her Paris vacation is more positive today than it was last year just after she went. This best illustrates
rosy retrospection
When Sperling visually displayed three rows of three letters each for only one-twentieth of a second, research participants
had a momentary photographic memory of all nine letters.
The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ________ memory.
Echoic memory refers to
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
"The Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of ________ memory.
An understanding of the distinction between implicit and explicit memories is most helpful for explaining
infantile amnesia
Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called
retrieval cues.
Déjà vu refers to the
the experience of feeling sure that one has witnessed or experienced a new situation