What planes separate the epigastric regions?
2 horizontal- subcostal and transtubercular; 2 vertical- midclavicular on each side
What are the boundaries of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
extends from the thoracic cage to the pelvis; superior boundary= costal cartilages 7-10 and xiphoid process, inferiorly=inguinal ligament and pelvic bones
List all components of the anterolateral abdominal wall
skin, superficial fascia, muscles, deep fascia, endabdominal fascia/fat, parietal peritoneum
What are the two layers of superfiscial fascia in the abdominal wall?
Camper's fascia=fatty, Scarpa's fascia= membranous
What are the four muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis
Origin and insertion of the external oblique
external surface of 5-12 ribs ---> lina alba, pubic tubercle, and anterior 1/2 of iliac crest
5 actions of the external oblique
1. compress/support abdominal viscera
2. laterally flex trunk
3. rotate trunk
4. pelvis fixed- flex trunk
5. thorax fixed- tilt pelvis posteriorly
What is the common innervation for all anterolateral abdominal wall muscles?
thoracoabdominal nerves (T6-T11)
Origina and insertion of internal oblique
thoracolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, later 1/2 of inguinal ligament---> inferior borders of 10-12 ribs and linea alba
3 actions of the internal oblique
1. compress and support abdominal viscera
2. laterally flex trunk
3. rotate trunk
origin and insertion of the rectus abdominis
pubic symphysis and pubic crest ---> xiphoid process and 5-7 costal cartilages
What is the common action of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles?
compress and support abdominal viscera
origin and insertion of the transversus abdominis
7-12 costal cartilages, iliac crest, inguinal ligament, thoracolumbar fascia ---> pubic crest and linea alba
Psoas major origins/ insertions
travsverse processes of L1-L5 and vertebral bodies of T12-L4 ---> lesser trochanter of the femur
What are intraperitoneal organs?
Not organs inside the peritoneal cavity- just means that they're surrounded in visceral peritoneum (stomach, spleen, liver, etc)
What are extraperitoneal organs?
organs that lie posterior to the peritoneum- usually covered by the peritoneum on just one surface (i.e. pancrease, kidneys)
double-layered extension of the peritoneum; passes from stomach to adjacent organs or abdominal wall (collect fat)
descriptive term for the peritoneum from the lesser curvature of the stomach and duodenum to the liver
hangs like an apron from the greater curvature of the stomach and proximal duodenum; fold abck and attaches to the transverse colon and mesentery
What comprises the terminal esophagus?
Superior 1/3= skeletal muscle, distal 1/3=smooth muscle, middle 1/3=mixed
What are the functions of the pancreas?
exocrine: secrete pancreatic juice into the duodenum; endocrine: secrete glucagon and insulin from the islets of Langerhans into blood
Describe the structure of the liver
contains functionally independent right and left lobes separated by a falciform ligament. The right lobe includes caudate and quadrate lobes. URQ and ULQ
What forms the bile duct and what is its purpose?
union of cystic and hepatic ducts; drains bile into the duodenum
Function of the kidneys?
control plasma volume and convey waste from blood producing urine for elimination via ureters
What are ureters?
muscular ducts (25-30 cm in length) that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
Describe the path of renal drainage
papillary duct in renal pyramid--> minor calyx --> major calyx --> renal pelvis --> ureter --> urinary bladder
What structures lie in the inguinal region? (males)
inguinal canal, spermatic cord, scrotum, epidydymis, testes
Describe the location of the inguinal canal
inferior to the anterolateral abdominal wall, parallel and just superior to the inguinal ligament
Main occupants of the inguinal canal
vessels to lower extremity; spermatic cord in males, round ligament of the uterus in females
name the three significant components of the spermatic cord and their functions
1. ductus deferens: conveys sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
2. cremaster muscle: draws testis superiorly, especially when it is cold
3. testicular artery: supplies the testis and epididymis
Describe the parts of the epididymis
head: formed by coiled ends of efferent ductules
body: consists of convoluted duct of epididymis
tail: continuous with the ductus deferens