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What are the two parts of the abdominopelvic cavity?

abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity

Boundaries of the abdominal cavity?

diaphragm to pelvic inlet (continuous with pelvic cavity)

What organs are in the abdominal cavity?

digestive organs, spleen, kidneys, majority of ureters

What planes separate the epigastric regions?

2 horizontal- subcostal and transtubercular; 2 vertical- midclavicular on each side

What planes separate the abdominal quadrants?

horizontal=transumbilical, vertical=median

What are the divisions of the abdominal wall?

anterior, posterior, right and left lateral (flanks)

What are the boundaries of the anterolateral abdominal wall?

extends from the thoracic cage to the pelvis; superior boundary= costal cartilages 7-10 and xiphoid process, inferiorly=inguinal ligament and pelvic bones

Majority of the anterolateral wall is ?


List all components of the anterolateral abdominal wall

skin, superficial fascia, muscles, deep fascia, endabdominal fascia/fat, parietal peritoneum

What are the two layers of superfiscial fascia in the abdominal wall?

Camper's fascia=fatty, Scarpa's fascia= membranous

What are the four muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall?

external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis

Origin and insertion of the external oblique

external surface of 5-12 ribs ---> lina alba, pubic tubercle, and anterior 1/2 of iliac crest

5 actions of the external oblique

1. compress/support abdominal viscera
2. laterally flex trunk
3. rotate trunk
4. pelvis fixed- flex trunk
5. thorax fixed- tilt pelvis posteriorly

What is the common innervation for all anterolateral abdominal wall muscles?

thoracoabdominal nerves (T6-T11)

Origina and insertion of internal oblique

thoracolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, later 1/2 of inguinal ligament---> inferior borders of 10-12 ribs and linea alba

3 actions of the internal oblique

1. compress and support abdominal viscera
2. laterally flex trunk
3. rotate trunk

origin and insertion of the rectus abdominis

pubic symphysis and pubic crest ---> xiphoid process and 5-7 costal cartilages

Actions of the rectus abdominis

1. compress abdominal viscera
2. flex trunk (lumbar vertebrae)

What is the common action of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles?

compress and support abdominal viscera

What muscles laterally flex the trunk?

External oblique, internal oblique

origin and insertion of the transversus abdominis

7-12 costal cartilages, iliac crest, inguinal ligament, thoracolumbar fascia ---> pubic crest and linea alba

Action of the transversus abdominis

compress and support abdominal viscera

What muscles comprise the posterior abdominal wall?

psoas major, iliacus, and quadratus lumborum

Psoas major origins/ insertions

travsverse processes of L1-L5 and vertebral bodies of T12-L4 ---> lesser trochanter of the femur

Psoas major actions

1. hip flexion
2. lateral rotation

NI psoas major

ventral rami

Iliacus origin/insertion

iliac fossa ---> lesser trochanter of the femur

Actions of iliacus

1. hip flexion
2. lateral rotation

NI iliacus

femoral nerve

Quadratus lumborum origin/insertion

iliac crest ---> 12th rib and lumbar transverse processes

Quadratus lumborum actions

1. extends vertebral column
2. laterally flexes vertebral column

NI quadratus lumborum

vertebral branches of T12 and L1-L4 nerves

Where is the parietal peritoneum?

lines the internal surface of the abdominopelvic wall

Where is the visceral peritoneum?

invests the viscera such as the stomach and spleen

Where are the peritoneum and viscera located?

abdominal cavity

What is in the peritoneal cavity?

No organs- just some thin fluid

What are intraperitoneal organs?

Not organs inside the peritoneal cavity- just means that they're surrounded in visceral peritoneum (stomach, spleen, liver, etc)

What are extraperitoneal organs?

organs that lie posterior to the peritoneum- usually covered by the peritoneum on just one surface (i.e. pancrease, kidneys)


peritoneum that connects organs to posterior abdominal wall


double-layered extension of the peritoneum; passes from stomach to adjacent organs or abdominal wall (collect fat)

lesser omentum

descriptive term for the peritoneum from the lesser curvature of the stomach and duodenum to the liver

greater omentum

hangs like an apron from the greater curvature of the stomach and proximal duodenum; fold abck and attaches to the transverse colon and mesentery

What are the dimensions of the terminal esophagus?

25 cm long, 2 cm diameter

What is the function of the termnal esophagus?

conveys food from the pharynx to the stomach

What comprises the terminal esophagus?

Superior 1/3= skeletal muscle, distal 1/3=smooth muscle, middle 1/3=mixed

What is the widest and most fixed part of the small intestine? How long is it?

Duodenum- 10 inches

Where do most processes of digestion occur?

stomach and duodenum

Where does the pancreas dump its enzymes?

duodenum- makes this a major site for chemical digestion

Where is the jejunum?

middle portion of small intestine; primarily in the upper quadrants

Where is the ileum?

end of small intestine; primarily in the lower quadrants

How long are the jejunum and ileum combined?

10 ft

What structures comprise the large intestine?

cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal

What is the largest lymphatic organ?


Spleen quadrant?


True or false: the spleen descends inferior to the costal region

usually false

Can the spleen regenerate?


What conditions cause splenomegaly?

mono and leukemia

What are the functions of the pancreas?

exocrine: secrete pancreatic juice into the duodenum; endocrine: secrete glucagon and insulin from the islets of Langerhans into blood

Where is the pancreas located?


Describe the structure of the liver

contains functionally independent right and left lobes separated by a falciform ligament. The right lobe includes caudate and quadrate lobes. URQ and ULQ

Where is the gall baldder?

visceral surface of the liver; URQ

What part of the gall bladder projects from the inferior border of the liver?


What part of the gall bladder contacts the visceral surface of the liver?


What part of the gall bladder is directed toward the cystic duct?

neck (narrow and tapered)

What is the function of the cystic duct?

leads from the gall bladder to the bile duct to drain bile

What forms the bile duct and what is its purpose?

union of cystic and hepatic ducts; drains bile into the duodenum

Where are the kidneys?

They lie on the posterior abdominal wall (flanks)

Function of the kidneys?

control plasma volume and convey waste from blood producing urine for elimination via ureters

Which kidney sits lower?

the right

What is the renal hilum?

medial margin of each kidney where vessels enter and exit

What are ureters?

muscular ducts (25-30 cm in length) that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

What lies at the superior end of the ureters?

renal pelvis

Describe the path of renal drainage

papillary duct in renal pyramid--> minor calyx --> major calyx --> renal pelvis --> ureter --> urinary bladder

What structures lie in the inguinal region? (males)

inguinal canal, spermatic cord, scrotum, epidydymis, testes

Describe the location of the inguinal canal

inferior to the anterolateral abdominal wall, parallel and just superior to the inguinal ligament

Main occupants of the inguinal canal

vessels to lower extremity; spermatic cord in males, round ligament of the uterus in females

What is the function of the spermatic cord?

suspends testis in the scrotum

name the three significant components of the spermatic cord and their functions

1. ductus deferens: conveys sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
2. cremaster muscle: draws testis superiorly, especially when it is cold
3. testicular artery: supplies the testis and epididymis

What two layers comprise the scrotum?

heavily pigmented skin and the dartos muscle

Where is the epididymis?

posterior surface of the testes

Describe the parts of the epididymis

head: formed by coiled ends of efferent ductules
body: consists of convoluted duct of epididymis
tail: continuous with the ductus deferens

What coveres the testes?

tough fibrous coat called the tunica albuginea

Where is sperm formed?

seminiferous tubules in the testis

What are the pelvic cavity viscera? (females)

urinary bladder, uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries

What are the four parts of the uterus?

body, fundus, isthmus, neck (cervix)

What lead from the uterus to the ovaries

uterine tubes (formerly fallopian tubes)

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