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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
MWH Unit 3 Study Guide
Terms in this set (41)
-a cluster of homes made of earth or stone
-Farmers grew wheat, rice, and cotton, sugar and crane
-rain determined their famine
-Each village ran its own affairs
Farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village
early industrial labor system in which workers produced goods at home
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering. All farming methods improved.
Pre 1800's Farming
The use of a seed drill helped to sow seeds, enclosures, crop rotation, all were old farming methods
practice of fencing or enclosing common lands into individual holdings
the system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing
Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, Spinning Mule, Power Loom
production of goods in a factory through the use of machines and a large number of workers
Water power, Steam power, coal
James Watt made the steam engine work faster while using less fuel.
Steam propelled boats, Robert Fulton created the steamboat Clermont
John McAdam used stones and crushed rock to create roads called macadam roads, then turnpikes
Use of iron to lay track, gave manufacturers a cheap way to transport goods, created new jobs, country workers took city jobs, boosted agriculture and fishing industries.
Why Britain led the Industrial Revolution
Most natural resources, like coal and iron. Great textile industry, factories built by rivers, advantages for people to relocate
Those that believe the government is the only way to improve people's lives, not the individual effort.
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism
English economist: Said that population tends to increase more rapidly than food supplies
Liberals who were against laissez-faire policy
-favored high wages, reduction of work hours, safer conditions, labor unions, voting rights.
John Stuart Mill
Believed workers should have more equal share of the profits, led the utilitarian movement, women's right to vote, called gov. to do away with differences in wealth.
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
persons who believe that people can live at peace with each other if they live in small cooperative settlements, owning all of the means of production in common and sharing the products
an imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal,/ group of soldiers in formation; close together
French social theorist; criticized capitalism; wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. "Theory of Four Movements".
Mill owner who worked for child labor laws, and founded cooperative communities.
people who believe that those who control the economic system also control the political one
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
founder of modern communism
Changing Role of Women
now had an opportunity in the work place, and they earned more wages. they only made 1/3 the amount of money that men made. Trade-unions were formed.
In the late 1800s a significant portion of the labor force was made up of children under the age of 15, some as young as 5 years old. These child laborers did not attend school. They worked in sweat shops which were workshops in tenements rather than factories.
Conditions of the Coal MInes
Most dangerous working conditions, damp, frequent accidents, and breathing of coal dust shortened life by 10 yrs. Women and children used because they were cheap labor.
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production.
With increased birthrates, urbanization, the outlawing of child labor, the increase of voting rights, and the influence of socialism, families were changed by the children spending much of their time in free community-sponsored public schools.
A shift in population toward cities--corresponds to the rise of industrialization and was also a consequence of industrialization.
(+) factories made lots of money and factory workers could support their families, lots of jobs
(-) too long of working hours with little-no breaks, factories were dirty and dangerous with poor lighting, risked loosing limbs, "black lung", pay was low
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