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50 terms

Bio EXAM 2

The egg cells of a horse contain 32 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the horse's liver cells?
A given section of DNA with the sequence AATGGCTAT is transcribed. What is the corresponding sequence on the mRNA transcription
A storm 5 female and 5 male tiger beetles from the mainland to a small island that had no previous population of tiger beetles. In tiger beetles, having six spots (A) is dominant to having four spots (a). All 10 beetles had six spots, but 1 male and 1 female were heterozygous for the four-spot trait... blah blah
genetic drift
If a baby has "his father's nose," it's because:
the baby has inherited the "father's nose" allele from his father
A cross between homozygous red-eyed flies and homozygous white-eyed flies results in progeny that that all have red eyes. This result demonstrates:
When crossing over occurs, ___ genes usually stay together.
Alternate versions of a gene can code for different ___ of the same character.
What are the two methods of cellular division in eukaryotic cells?
meiosis and mitosis
Monogamy, a relatively rare system outside of birds, evolved when:
both males and females have high and equal parental investment
How can two pea plants that have different genotypes for seed color be identical in phenotype?
one of the two plants could be homozygous for the dominant allele while the other could be heterozygous
Brassica Oleracea was a European wild plant. Early farmers were able to use artificial selection on this plant to produce cabbage, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, kale, broccoli, and cauliflower. This diversification through selection was possible because:
the species contained large amounts of genetic variation
Bt corn is a genetically engineered plant. What feature gives it value as a crop plant?
The plant produces a toxin designed to kill corn bores
The law of segregation states that:
each of two alleles for a given trait segregates into different gametes
Which of the following statements is NOT correct of human sex chromosomes?
all diploid cells have both an X and a Y chromosome
In the graph in the figure, the x-axis represents:
sexual dimorphism refers to:
the situation in which males and females differ physically and/or behaviorally
the difference in sizes between male and female gametes results from two unequal divisions of ___ in female gamete development.
Transgenic bacteria are bacteria:
that have a sequence of DNA from another organism inserted into them
When genetically based traits are inherited independently from each other, this is known as:
Mendel's law of independent assortment
"Survival of the fittest" may be a misleading phrase to describe the process of evolution by natural selection because:
survival matters less to natural selection than reproductive success does.
Cancer cells are different from other cells in that they have lost their "contact inhibition." "contact inhibition" means:
most cells stop dividing when they bump up against other cells or collection of cells.
Many mosquito populations today are resistant to pesticides that were historically effective. This pesticide resistance arose in these populations because:
some individuals were resistant to the pesticides before they were used, and those mosquitoes were more likely to survive and reproduce
sex-linked traits:
often are expressed in different frequencies in males and females
DNA is a macromolecule that stores information. Which component of DNA is the source of this information?
the base
The sex with the greater energetic investment in reproduction will be ___ when it comes to mating.
more discriminating
Which of the following pairings, indicated by letters referring to blood phenotypes, CANNOT produce a child with type B blood?
O x O
Whether it is eggs or sperm being produced through meiosis, under normal circumstances, each gamete ends up with:
equal amounts of cytoplasm
Most genetic disease result from mutations that cause a gene to produce non-functioning ___, which in turn blocks the functioning of a metabolic pathway.
When a goose spots an egg outside of its nest, the goose gets out of the nest and rolls the egg back. blah blah... this is called:
a fixed action pattern
A comparison of the graph in the figure from question 15 shows that:
males maximize reproductive success by mating with as many females as possible
The process of using the information encoded in mRNA molecules to assemble polypeptides from amino acids is called:
in humans, genes make up ___ of DNA
less than 5%
evolution occurs:
only via natural selection, genetic drift, migration, or mutation
For a population to evolve through natural selection:
its members must possess inheritable variation
The mechanism by which the information contained in DNA is coded into a complementary RNA copy called:
Kin selection is defined as:
a selection for a behavior that lowers an individual's own chances of survival or reproduction, but raises those of a relative
In certain plants, red flowers are dominate to white flowers. If a heterozygous plant is crossed with a homozygous red-flowered plant, what is the probability that the offspring will be white-flowered?
In any DNA molecule, the number of guanine bases is:
always equal to the number of cytosine bases
The purpose of mitosis is to enable existing cells:
to generate new, genetically identical cells
The appropriate unit for defining and measuring genetic variation is the:
The fact that fish, penguins, and dolphins all have the same basic shape is BEST explained by which of the following?
The basic shapes of fish, penguins, and dolphins are vestigial structures
Human babies quickly and easily develop a fear of snakes, yet they don't easily develop a fear of guns. Why?
In order to learn fear of guns, human babies need to be exposed to another human expressing fear of guns, and this rarely happens
In a particular population, over the course of several dozen generations, an adenine was replaced by guanine at a particular non-coding locus in the DNA base sequence. The evolutionary mechanism responsible for this change was:
What is the ultimate explanation for modern human preference for fatty foods
Ancestral humans where preferred fatty foods were less likely to starve, leaving more offspring in the next generation
the division of the cytoplasm during cell division is referred to as:
Artificial selection is likely to produce population-level changes most quickly in organisms with:
a short generation time
Errors sometimes occur when DNA duplicates itself. Why might that be a good thing?
New genes can enter the population and be acted upon by evolution
A situation in which the heterozygous offspring of to homozygotes show a phenotype intermediate between those of the parents is called:
incomplete dominance
Mitosis results in:
daughter calls with the same number and composition of chromosomes
When individuals of any species find themselves in an environment that differs from the environment to which they are evolutionarily adapted, we observe that:
they engage in behaviors better fit to the environment the individual organisms find themselves in than to the environment the species evolved in