45 terms

14

STUDY
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1) A commensal bacterium
A) Does not receive any benefit from its host.
B) Is beneficial to its host.
C) May be an opportunistic pathogen.
D) Does not infect its host.
E) B and D only.
C
Analysis
2) Which of the following statements is true?
A) Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.
B) Members of a symbiotic relationship cannot live without each other.
C) A parasite is not in symbiosis with its host.
D) Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together and benefiting from each other.
E) At least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship.
A
Analysis
3) A nosocomial infection is
A) Always present but inapparent at the time of hospitalization.
B) Acquired during the course of hospitalization.
C) Always caused by medical personnel.
D) Only a result of surgery.
E) Always caused by pathogenic bacteria.
B
Recall
4) The major significance of Kochʹs work was that
A) Microorganisms are present in a diseased animal.
B) Diseases can be transmitted from one animal to another.
C) Microorganisms can be cultured.
D) Microorganisms cause disease.
E) Microorganisms are the result of disease.
D
Recall
5) Kochʹs postulates donʹt apply to all diseases because
A) Some microorganisms canʹt be cultured in laboratory media.
B) Some microorganisms donʹt cause the same disease in laboratory animals.
C) Some microorganisms cause different symptoms under different conditions.
D) Some microorganisms canʹt be observed.
E) All diseases arenʹt caused by microorganisms.
E
Recall
6) Which of the following diseases is not spread by droplet infection?
A) Botulism
B) Tuberculosis
C) Measles
D) Common cold
E) Diphtheria
A
Understanding
7) Mechanical transmission differs from biological transmission in that mechanical transmission
A) Doesnʹt require an arthropod.
B) Involves fomites.
C) Doesnʹt involve specific diseases.
D) Requires direct contact.
E) Doesnʹt work with noncommunicable diseases.
C
Analysis
8) Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A) Endemic a disease that is constantly present in a population
B) Epidemic fraction of the population having a disease at a specified time
C) Pandemic a disease that affects a large number of people in the world in a short time
D) Sporadic a disease that affects a population occasionally
E) None of the above
B
Recall
9) Which of these infections can cause septicemia?
A) Bacteremia
B) Focal infection
C) Local infection
D) Septicemia
E) Systemic infection
B
Understanding
10) Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A) Bacteremia
B) Focal infection
C) Local infection
D) Septicemia
E) Systemic infection
E
Understanding
11) Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?
A) Bacteremia
B) Focal infection
C) Local infection
D) Septicemia
E) Systemic infection
D
Understanding
12) Nosocomial infections are most often caused by
A) Escherichia coli.
B) Staphylococcus aureus.
C) Enterococcus.
D) Pseudomonas.
E) Klebsiella.
A
Recall
13) Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A) Cause diseases.
B) Are found in a certain location on the host.
C) Are acquired by direct contact.
D) Are present for a relatively short time.
E) None of the above.
D
Recall
14) Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is not true?
A) They occur in compromised patients.
B) They are caused by opportunists.
C) They are caused by drug-resistant bacteria.
D) They are caused by normal microbiota.
E) None of the above.
B
Recall
15) One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in
A) Body odor.
B) Fewer diseases.
C) Increased susceptibility to disease.
D) Normal microbiota returning immediately.
E) No bacterial growth because washing removes their food source.
C
Analysis
16) Which of the following is not a reservoir of infection?
A) A sick person
B) A healthy person
C) A sick animal
D) A hospital
E) None of the above
E
Analysis
17) All of the following are communicable diseases except
A) Malaria.
B) AIDS.
C) Tuberculosis.
D) Tetanus.
E) Typhoid fever.
D
Analysis
18) Which of the following is a fomite?
A) Water
B) Droplets from a sneeze
C) Pus
D) Insects
E) A hypodermic needle
E
Analysis
19) All of the following statements about biological transmission are true except
A) The pathogen reproduces in the vector.
B) The pathogen may enter the host in the vectorʹs feces.
C) Houseflies are an important vector.
D) The pathogen may be injected by the bite of the vector.
E) The pathogen may require the vector as a host.
C
Recall
20) Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A) Acute a short-lasting primary infection
B) Inapparent infection characteristic of a carrier state
C) Chronic a disease that develops slowly and lasts for months
D) Primary infection an initial illness
E) Secondary infection a long-lasting illness
E
Recall
21) Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A) Are changes felt by the patient.
B) Are changes observed by the physician.
C) Are specific for a particular disease.
D) Always occur as part of a syndrome.
E) None of the above.
A
Recall
22) The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A) Ecology.
B) Epidemiology.
C) Communicable disease.
D) Morbidity and mortality.
E) Public health.
B
Recall
Figure 14.1
23) Figure 14.1 shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level?
A) a
B) b
C) c
D) d
E) None of the above
D
Analysis
24) Emergence of infectious diseases can be due to all of the following except
A) Antibiotic resistance.
B) Climatic changes.
C) Digging up soil.
D) Microbes trying to cause disease.
E) Travel.
D
Understanding
25) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) Malaria vector
B) Salmonellosis vehicle transmission
C) Syphilis direct contact
D) Influenza droplet infection
E) None of the above
E
Analysis
26) All of the following can contribute to postoperative infections except
A) Using syringes more than once.
B) Normal microbiota on the operating room staff.
C) Errors in aseptic technique.
D) Antibiotic resistance.
E) None of the above.
E
Analysis
Figure 14.2
27) In Figure 14.2, what is the endemic level of rotavirus infections?
A) 0%
B) Approximately 10%
C) Approximately 20%
D) 35%
E) The month of January
B
Analysis
28) A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of
A) Direct contact
B) Droplet transmission
C) Fomite
D) Vector
E) Vehicle transmission
E
Analysis
29) Influenza transmitted by an unprotected sneeze is an example of
A) Direct contact.
B) Droplet transmission.
C) Fomite.
D) Vector.
E) Vehicle transmission.
B
Analysis
30) A sexually transmitted disease is an example of
A) Direct contact.
B) Droplet transmission.
C) Fomite.
D) Vector.
E) Vehicle transmission.
A
Analysis
31) Gastroenteritis acquired from roast beef is an example of
A) Direct contact.
B) Droplet transmission.
C) Fomite.
D) Vector.
E) Vehicle transmission.
E
Analysis
32) A needlestick is an example of
A) Direct contact.
B) Droplet transmission.
C) Fomite.
D) Vector.
E) Vehicle transmission.
C
Analysis
33) Legionellosis transmitted by a grocery store mist machine is an example of
A) Direct contact.
B) Droplet transmission.
C) Fomite.
D) Vector.
E) Vehicle transmission.
E
Analysis
34) Plague transmitted by a flea is an example of
A) Direct contact.
B) Droplet transmission.
C) Fomite.
D) Vector.
E) Vehicle transmission.
D
Analysis
35) The most likely mode of transmission of pneumonic plague between humans is
A) Direct contact.
B) Droplet transmission.
C) Fomite.
D) Vector.
E) Vehicle transmission.
B
During a 6-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever ≥39°C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory -confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.
36) Situation 14.1 is an example of
A) Human reservoirs.
B) A zoonosis.
C) A nonliving reservoir.
D) A vector.
E) A focal infection.
B
Understanding
37) In Situation 14.1, the etiologic agent of the disease is
A) Sheep.
B) Soil.
C) C. burnetii.
D) Pneumonia.
E) Wind.
C
Understanding
38) In Situation 14.1, the method of transmission of this disease was
A) Direct contact.
B) Droplet.
C) Indirect contact.
D) Vector-borne.
E) Vehicle.
E
Understanding
39) Which one of the following is not an example of microbial antagonism?
A) Acid production by bacteria
B) Bacteriocin production
C) Bacteria occupying host receptors
D) Bacteria causing disease
E) None of the above
E
Analysis
40) The yeast Candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of
A) Symbiotic bacteria.
B) Antagonistic bacteria.
C) Parasitic bacteria.
D) Commensal bacteria.
E) None of the above.
B
Analysis
41) Haemophilus bacteria require heme protein produced by Staphylococcus bacteria. This is an example of
A) Antagonism.
B) Commensalism.
C) Parasitism.
D) Synergism.
E) None of the above.
D
Analysis
42) Which one of the following is not a zoonosis?
A) Cat-scratch disease
B) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
C) Rabies
D) Tapeworm
E) None of the above
E
Recall

43) Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a
A) Communicable disease.
B) Latent infection.
C) Nosocomial infection.
D) Sporadic disease.
E) None of the above.
C
Analysis
Figure 14.3
44) The graph in Figure 14.3 shows the incidence of polio in the United States. The period between 1945 and 1955 indicates
A) An endemic level.
B) An epidemic level.
C) A sporadic infection.
D) A communicable disease.
E) None of the above.
B
Analysis

45) Which one of the following does not contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?
A) Formation of biofilms.
B) Lapse in aseptic techniques.
C) Gram-negative cell walls.
D) Lack of hand-washing.
E) Lack of insect control.
C
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