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APES Chp 11 Vocab
Sustaining Biodiversity: The species approach
Terms in this set (37)
Wild species with so few individual survivors that the species could soon become extinct in all or most of its natural range
Wild species that is still abundant in its natural range but is likely to become endangered because of a decline in numbers
Areas with many endemic plant and animals species. These are endangered areas of biodiversity due to loss of habitat.
Any habitat surrounded by a different one. National parks and other reserves are examples.
Caused by roads, logging, agriculture, and urban development, this phenomenon occurs when a large continuous area of habitat is reduced in area and divided into smaller, more scattered, and isolated patches or habitat islands. This can block migration routes and limit the abilities of some species to find mates and get food.
provide a more practical and economical way to track the state of the environment than if we attempted to record every possible variable in the environment.
Birds are a good example because they respond quickly to environmental change.
wild and menacing invasive species such as the feral pig( the euro wild boar) and the feral cat. They harm ecosystems.
Prevention is the best way to reduce threats from invasive species. With this approach, species that are not on an approved list are denied entry into the country. (Australia and New Zealand uses this)
A pesticide that was used during the first half of the 20th century with great success. Rachel Carson discovered its carcinogenic effects on humans.
the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other organic chemicals in an organism. DDT can accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals.
the increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in a food chain. More and more of the substance exists as one moves up each trophic level. DDT could exist in very small amounts in many phytoplankton, and when a fish eats a lot of the plankton, all the DDT is stored in the fish. When a bird eats a lot of fish.... and so on
Indigenous people in Africa have sustainably hunted wildlife for this for centuries. This is food consumed as a source of protein by local people in parts of West Africa and sold in the national and international marketplace.
Science of inventing, establishing, and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live, work, or play.
occurs when a species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the world
occurs when so few members of a species are left that it can no longer play its ecological roles in the biological communities where it is found
a species is no longer found anywhere on earth
this is permanent
suggests that on average a 90% loss of habitat causes the extinction of about 50% of the species living in the habitat
Theory of Island Biogeography
This model, proposed by EO Wilson, estimates the number of species that a habitat island can hold based off of the island's size and distance to the main land. Scientists use this model to estimate the risk of a particular species becoming endangered or extinct.
World Wildlife Fund
The world's leading conservation organization, WWF works in 100 countries and is supported by 1.2 million members in the United States and close to 5 million globally. WWF's unique way of working combines global reach with a foundation in science, involves action at every level from local to global, and ensures the delivery of innovative solutions that meet the needs of both people and nature.
In addition to increasing the rate of extinction, humans may be limiting the long-term recovery of biodiversity by reducing the rate of speciation for some types of species. The species that are experiencing speciation are the opportunists such as cockroaches and rodents.
Love of Life (EO Wilson)
Acronym used by some conservation biologists to summarize the most important causes of premature extinction: Habitat destruction and fragmentation, Invasive species, Population growth, Pollution, and Over-harvesting
Harmful ecological and economic effects from the presence of accidentally or deliberately introduced species into ecosystems.
Found nowhere else on earth
Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species
(CITES) This treaty has been signed by 176 countries. It lists species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products because they're in danger of extinction. Varying effectiveness from country to country.
Endangered Species Act
(ESA) Designed to identify and legally protect endangered species in the US and abroad.
Convention on Biological Diversity
(CBD)It has 3 main objectives:
The conservation of biological diversity
The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity
The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources
(FOCUS ON ECOSYSTEMS)
National Marine Fisheries Service
(NMFS) Responsible for identifying and listing endangered and threatened ocean species.
US Fish and Wildlife Services
(USFWS) Identifies and list endangered species. Help with the recovery of endangered species.
Habitat Conservation Plans
(HCPs) These are designed to strike a compromise between the interests of private land owners and those of endangered and threatened species. Landowners are allowed to destroy some critical habitat in exchange for taking steps to protect members of a species.
Safe Harbor Agreements
USFWS approved: Landowners voluntarily agree to help the threatened or endangered species on their land. In return, the owners get technical help and assurances that the natural resources involved will not face future restrictions once the agreement expires.
Voluntary Candidate Conservation Agreements
USFWS approved: Landowners voluntarily agree to help conserve a species who is not yet endangered or threatened, but the numbers are in decline. The participants get govt subsidies and technical help as well as assurances about resource-use restrictions.
Many scientists believe that the US needs a new law that emphasizes protecting and sustaining biological diversity and ecosystem functioning rather than focusing on individual species. Protect the habitats in order to prevent any species from becoming endangered in the first place.
Preserve genetic info and endangered plant species by storing their seeds in refrigerated, low-humidity environments.
These gardens contain living plants. They help educate the public about plant conservation. They only hold about 3% of the world's rare and threatened plant species.
Involves collecting wild eggs laid by critically endangered bird species and then hatching them in zoos or research centers.
Some or all of the wild individuals of a critically endangered species are captured for breeding in captivity. Trying to reintroduce into the wild eventually.
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