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AP psychology emotion

primary emotions

emotions considered to be universal and biologically based; they generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt

secondary emotions

blends of primary emotions, including states such as remorse, guilt, submission, and anticipation

facial feedback

the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness

mood contagion

the spillover of one's positive or negative moods onto others or other situations

polygraph machines

lie detector tests; if guilty will have increased activity in autonomic system (sweat/heartbeat); not reliable

James-Lange theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

Cannon-Bard theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion

Schacter's Two factor theory

in order to experience emotion, one must first be physically aroused and able to cognitively label the arousal

Temporal sequence theory

go through repeated cycles of appraisal and reappraisal when confronted with a new stimulus (dog bite/friendly); the emotion we feel is a direct result of the appraisal

emotion work

expression of an emotion, often because of a role requirement, that a person does not really feel

display rules

cross-cultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions


sources of stress

stress reactions

the physical, psychological, and behavioral responses that occur in the face of a stressor

transient stressors

temporary challenges

chronic stressors

Threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit

Thomas Holmes/ Richard Rahe

early stress researchers who developed the idea of major life event stressors and th Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to measure stress

Social Readjustment Rating Scale

A basic scale created by Holmes and Rache to measure the amount of stress.

Hans Seyle

The father of "modern stress theory." Defined eustress and distress. Stated that stress is a mutual action of forces in the body.General Adaptation Syndrome

Richard Lazarus

agrees that cognition is essential: Many important emotions arise from our interpretations or interferences.

Type A personality

Personality characterized by (1) a strong competitive orientation, (2) impatience and time urgency, and (3) anger and hostility.

Type B personality

Personality characterized by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.

Martin Seligman

researcher known for work on learned helplessness and learned optimism as well as positive psychology

optimistic explanatory style

Accounting for negative events or situations with external, unstable, and specific explanations

pessimistic explanatory style

Accounting for negative events or situations with internal, stable, and global explanations


a release of emotional tension

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