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Gilded Age Study Guide

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James Garfield Assasination
-Charles Giteau demanded Garfield apooint him ambassador to France
-he was ignored
-Giteau shot Garfield in the back at a train station in DC
Grover Cleveland
- only president to serve 9 consecutive terms
- against spoils system and corruption
- Democrat, went from pro silver to against silver
-called "Benedict Arnold" with the Sherman Silver Act whihc ended the issue of silver banknotes redeemable for gold
- in favor of tariff
Mckinley Assasination
-shot by Leon Czolgosz (polish steelworker and an anarchist)
Spoils System
- men can by their way into office
Machine Politics
• large organizations thah are taken over and run as large gangs
• makes sures members of organization has jobs
- "machine" network of neighborhood activists and officials who govern a town or city
- often corrupt and rarely efficient
- did bring stability and structure
- municipial government: provides safety, goods, services, and infastructure
Boss Tweed
•political boss
• incharge of tammany hall
• use corruption and jobs to kee control of New York
• fled to spain when arrested when spainards recognized him because of Nast's drawings
Tammany Hall
• nickname to democrats of NY
• ran as political machine
- used by Boss Tweed to dominate nation's largest city
Thomas Nast
• german (bavarian) immigrant
• political cartoonist
• targeted corruption
• offered $100,000 by Boss Tweed
• refused
Populists
- wants support from urban population, endorses 8 hour workday, immigration restriction, power to regular people rather than selected elite group
Mary Lease
- born in Pennsylvania, fiery speaker
- taught a school in KS, plus studied law
- KS first female lawyer
- female populist leader, apart of Knights of Labor and advocates free silver and womens' suffrage
Contractions of Money Supply
...
Realpolitik
from german real or practical and politik "politics"

• politics or diplomacy based primarily on power and on practical and material factors, rather than ideological notions or moral or ethical values
idealism
state should make its internal political philosophy the goal of its foreign policy
Wilsonian Idealism
spread human rights and democracy, advocated spread of capitalism
Isolationism
a policy remaining apart from the affairs of interests of other groups, especially the affairs of other countries
Crime of 73'
-silver production in western states began increasing,
- suspicion grew that bankers and merchants conspired in 1873 to stop coining silver to ensure a nationwide scarcity of money
- inflationary policies
- abandonment of silver
Populist Party
-people's part in Kansas government also controls both houses in Nebraska
- in South Dakota, Minnesota, populists also gain balance of power
William Jennings Bryan
- strikes should be legalized, farmers given subsidies, rich taxed, corporation campaign contributions banned, and temperance
- all for white Evangelicals only
- "Cross of Gold" speech
Silver coinage/inflationary policy
- money supply lacks flexibility to grow with the expanding economy
- metallic money from Mint Act 1792 auhtorizes free and unlimited coinage of silver and gol at a ratio of 15 to 1, owners can get metals coined for free plus a fee for processing
- gold has shifting market value that gold to silver ratio did not reflect
-gold market value raises ration of silver to gold to 16 to 1
- country on a silver standard till 1837 shifted to a gold standard since silver became more valuable in open market
Depression of 1893
- Philadelphia and Reading Railroad declare bankrupcy
- set of national panic as other lines and banks close, as well as farms
- several unskilled workers lose their jobs, several labor strikes
- Coxey's Army led by Jacob Coxey marches to DC and demands government provide unemployed with meaningful work
- resulted in growing political strength of populism
Election 1896
Republicans: William Mckinley with gold standard platform, well rganized and financed, has army of 1400 republica speakers who travel to country in his support, wage laborers support him and communist spirit, he wins
Democrats: William Jennings Bryan with pro silver platform (wants to infuse religion into politics, Cross of Gold Speech) won 5th ballot, has inflationary program, pro gold democrats were so alienated they elected their own candidate, John M. Palmer, Populists side with Bryan but try to elect their own VP (Thomas Watson) doesn't work out
Tariff
-Mckinley issues Dingley Tariff 1897, making tariff the highest it has ever been, economic prosperity
Gold Rushes
- gold found in Yukon, Africa, and Alaska from high inflation, results in passing of the Gold Standard Acts which ends silver movement
Goldbugs/Silverites
- failure of a major British banks caused the 1893 depression which led many British investors to sell their american holdings for Gold
-U.S. gold reserve falls under $100 million so Cleveland repeals Sherman Silver Purchase Act (stops isue of silver notes redeemable for gold)
- populists wonder if they should build platform based on money question but decide to leave that to the two major parties
Teddy Roosevelt: Pragmatic Progressive
- wants the idealistic old prejudices of poor to be changed with reform that is more pragmatic
- reform includes: better democracy, honest and efficient government, more social justice for working people, conservatism, regulation of business, prohibition, and urbanization
Teddy Roosevelt: Power of President
- loose interpretation of the Constitution, meaning that president has all powers that aren't explicitly denied him in the constitution
Square Deal
- differentiate between the good and bad corporations
- anti sherman trust act
-stricter contol of big business
- involves breaking up big companies
1902 Coal Strike
- May 12, 1902 150,000 workers of United Mine Workers walk out of their jobs in Pennsylvania demanding a 20% increase in wages, shorter work days, and recognition of their union
- strike causes the price of coal to increase
-Roosevelt invited both sides to a conference where he appeals to their patriotism (asks them to make sacrafices for the common good)
- owners refuse to talk to the UMV leaders so Roosevelt considers having the armies control the mines, questions whether it is legal but at this point doesn't care if it is or not
What made the 2nd Industrial Revolution Possible
- application of scientific research to the industrial process
- interconnected transportation/communication network
- electric power
Innovations of 2nd Industrial Revolution
- telegraph, telephone (Alexander Graham Bell), typewriter (Christopher Shole) , electric lights, internal combustion engine, motion pictures, batteries
Railroad
- Lincoln passes Pacific Railroad Act which authorizes a line along the North central route to be built by Union Pacific RR westward from Omaha and then by the Central Pacific RR eastward from Sacramento,
-Union Pacific workers: former Union and Confederate soldiers, slaves, or Irish and German immigrants
- Central Pacific Crew: chinese workers lured to america by gold rush and then by railroad jobs, getting money in hope of returning home and marrying with enough money to by their own land
-Union Pacific and Central railroad meets at Promontory Utah
- Southern Pacific Railroad links Atchinson, Topeka with Santa Fe Railroad
- Central Pacific made connections to St. Louis and New Orleans
- Northern Pacific connected Lake Superior with Oregon
-Great Northern went from St. Paul Minnesota to Tacoma,WA
Fredrick W. Taylor
- created "Taylorism": breaking down production of goods into steps and studied time it took worker to do each step and then finds the best technique for worker to complete the task and dvelops standards for each job
- wrote "Principle of Scientific Management"
- many workers resent Taylorism since it forces workers to work at unreasonably fast speeds
- brings increase in productivity
Alexander Graham Bell
-patented telephone 1876
- to promote device he formed Bell Telephone Company
- West refuse to by and have Thomas Edison create a btter version
-Bell sells the rights and properties which clears way for American Telephone and Telegraph Company
Thomas Edison
- invents phonograph 1877 and lightbulb 1879, also created/perfected storage battery, motion picture, and other similar devices
- created direct current which limited light to radius of 2 miles
- Edison Electric Illuminating Company supplies electrical current to 85 customers in NYC
- different companies making lightbulbs emerge into Edison General Electric Company in 1888
Nikola Tesla
- Serbo-Croatian Immigrant
- incents alternating current motor, allows factories to locate anywhere
AC/DC Wars
- George Westinghouse developed an alternating current (light can cover larger distances) electric system and Edison resisted this new method as two risky but new system won battle of currents and Edison companies had to switch over
Horatio Alger
A prolific writer who often wrote about teenage boys rising out of poverty, he popularised the "rags to riches" story. This led to an emphasis on work ethic and meritocracy in the golden age.
Robber Barons/Captains of Industry
-shrewd, determined, and dishonest men
Jay Gould
- prince of RR robber barons
- bought rundown railroads, made improvements, and sold them for a profit then used the corporate funds for personal investment and bribes for politicians and judges
- ousted by a reform group after loot of NY Erie RR
- $100 mill fortune by time of his death
Cornelius Vanderbilt
- consolidated eastern railroads
- merged the separate trunk lines connecting Albany and Buffalo NY into a single rail network led by NY Central
- forged connections to NYC and tried to corner stock of Erie RR but they printed new stock faster than Vanderbilt could buy it in defense so he bought a midwest trail company that gave his line connections to Chicago market
John D. Rockfeller
- passion for organization and self discipline
-Striking oil in Pennsylvania led to an oil rush, which meant that it was the perfect moment for Rockefeller to start a business in refining oil into kerosene, as it was more valuable than oil at this moment in time.
He centred his refineries in Cleveland due to its shipping connections. He created the Standard Oil Company as a he consolidated his separate refineries/businesses, and business boomed as he eradicated middlemen to maximize profits (vertical integration),
kept large amounts of cash reserves separate from banks. but wanted to weed out competition; he created the Standard Oil Trust, and as that was forced to dissolve, perfected the holding company, in which one company controlled other companies by holding their stocks
- Rockefeller gave most of his fortune to charity
Andrew Carnegie
- rags to riches
- born in Scotland but moved to Pennsylvania
- was a bobbin boy, then secreatary to Thomas Scott went with him when he worked on Pen RR and then when he was sec of war in charge of transportation
- developed military telegraph system
- Carnegie moved from telgraph tp rr, to bridge building etc
- finally focused on steel when Sir Henry Bessemer found way Steel could be made from pig iron, more steel produced prices drop and uses soar
- never a tech expert on steel, but a promoter who hired the best
- believes inconstant innovation, up to date machinery, etc
- believes in human competition, wider gap between rich and poor shows larger progress in society
- gived money to schools, libraries etc
JP Morgan
- born into wealth
- went to school Switz, college in Germany, also was an apprentice
- sets himself as NY agent under name J Pierpont Morgan Company which channels european capital into the US
- Investment banker who bought other companies stocks and bonds and sold them at a profit
- investment business depends on health of client companies so investors became involved in operation of client firms
- Morgan acquires and reorganizes railroad lines, consolidates steel industry, bought Carnegie's steel and iron holdings in 1901
- added other steel interests and Rockefeller iron ore holdings in Minnesota into new US Steels Corporation
- first billion dollar corp
Sears and Roebuck
- need to extend commerce to people on farms
- AAron Montgomer Ward decides he can reach people more easily through mail and begins selling goods at 40% discount through a mail catalog
- early 1890s Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck begin offering cornucopia of goods through Sears and Roeuck catalog, they bought goods in big volume from wholesalers so they could sell it cheaper
Working Conditions
the richest 2% of americans owned ⅓ of the nation's wealth
- crowded tenements, poor safety and health conditions, death rate high, no worker compensation if you were injured on the job
Pay Statistics
1860-1890 earnings in manufacturing go up 50%
1890-1914 go up another 37%, minimum wage about 3.50
Hours
The average workweek was fifty nine hours (six ten hour days), but many put in twelve hour days and many put in seven day workweeks with eighty four hours per week.
Child Labor
- parents desperate for income had no choice but to put their kid to work
- children get little to no education or leisure time
- factories were also very dangerous and suffered many diseases and accidents.
Safety
Factories maintained poor health and safety conditions, and the American industry had the highest accident rate in the world. Due to the increasingly impersonal relationship between employers and employees, safety was largely ignored.
Regulations: State v. Federal
Laws limiting children's work hours and minimum age requirements were up to the states, and only a few passed them; they were mostly ignored. Some states required work permits, but those were easily forged.
Molly Maguires
An Irish group that took their name from a patriot who led violent protest, their main drive was protest against working conditions in mines and mine owners' treatment of the union. They used hard power (murder, beatings, etc.) to protest. The mine owners had to hire Pinkerton detectives to stop the movement, getting the leaders indicted. It led to a wage reduction in mines and the destruction of the Miners' National Association.
Knights of Labor
A party that significantly rose in power during the 1970s depression. The party wanted creation of bureaus of labor statistics to ensure salaries, an eight hour workday, the use of paper currency, and elimination of convict-labor competition (where owners would hire former convicts for less pay). The party preferred boycotts over strikes and violence. However, the party declined in power after the failure at the railroad strike.
1877 Railroad Strike
The panic of 1873 and following depression led to cut wages along the rail lines, leading to this, the first major interstate strike in American history. A mob of angry workers began to destroy rails, a phenomenon that spread over hundreds of cities and cost millions of dollars in damages. Federal troops had to be called in to quell the violence, and people began to fear a civil war between laborers and owners/elites. It demonstrated union strength, but also the need for better organisation.
Anarchists
- "propogation of dead"
- Anarchists believed that any government was abusive, and used by the elite to exploit the poor. They wanted a stateless, non-governed society furthered by the masses. They liked to use dramatic acts of violence against the government, known as the "propaganda of the deed".
Homestead Strike
This, along with the Pullman strike, stalled the industrial-union movement and set it back forty years. The Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers, the largest craft union at the time, had excluded unskilled steelworkers from its ranks. The Homestead Works was an exception; the workers there were friendly with Carnegie's company until Henry Frick became the president. The Union needed to be renewed, and Frick was planning on cutting workers for machinery and going to attempt to dismantle the union. When the union renewals stalled a strike began; to combat this, Frick built a large wall around the plant and hired Pinkerton detectives to protect it; on their way, Pinkertons were met by unionists and a battle broke out. The steel union at the Homestead was dead as leaders were charged with murder and treason. An Anarchist also tried to assassinate Frick, and sympathy for the strikers disappeared. Anarchists began to be associated with the Knights of Labour, something
Pullman Strike
It took place in Pullman, Illinois, a town where employees of the Palace Car Company had to live and pay extremely high prices for goods and services. Due to the depression, George Pullman laid off over half of his employees and cut wages, but not the town's service charges; a strike began, and protesting workers were joined by the American Railway Union, founded by Eugene Debs. The protesters refused to handle railcars and had basically stopped most of the rails in the midwest, and violence erupted between protesters and deputies hired to keep trains running. Federal troops were sent in, and interfering with mail or interstate commerce was forbidden. Debs was incriminated after strikes were called off and jailed.
Haymarket Affair
Knights of Labour set the deadline for adopting an eight hour workday and when that didn't come into fruition, strikers and policemen clashed. A small group of anarchists scheduled a meeting to protest a death in the riots and someone threw a bomb at the police when they arrived; seven anarchist leaders were sentenced to death. Anarchists became synonymous with the Knights of Labour, and the latter declined in power.
Mother Jones
An Irish immigrant who lost her husband, children, and property, she devoted herself to the labor movement, joining the Knights of Labor and speaking for various unions as well as the Socialist party. She promoted higher wages, shorter hours, safer workplaces, and restrictions on child labour. She once led a march of child workers to the home of Roosevelt, and soon after Pennsylvania raised the legal working age to fourteen. Her famous cry was "Pray for the dead and fight like hell for the living".
Eugene V Debbs
Founder of the American Railway Union, and presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America. He ultimately would grow to poll six percent of the popular vote and influenced states to elect socialist politicians.
Samuel Gompers
The de facto president of the AFL. Unlike the Knights of Labour, he focused on economic gains (higher wages, shorter hours, better working conditions) and avoided politics. His temperament (thick hide, sociable, etc.) also made him a better president than Powderly. He never frowned upon industrial unions and allied with some.
The AFL
Craft Unions (skilled workers) feared losing their identities if they joined with unskilled laborers, and thus joined together to form the American Federation of Labor. The union peaked at four million members just after WWI, but still encompassed less than 20 percent of nonagricultural workers. It was different from the Knights of Labour in that it was an amalgamation of different unions, thus having greater autonomy. Its greatest success was organising skilled workers.
Marxists
A strain of socialism imported mainly by German Immigrants. Karl Marx's International Workingmen's Association (i.e. First International) had its headquarters moved to New York, and followers of Marx in America organised the Socialist Labour Party.
Socialists
Their party wasn't popular until Daniel De Leon rose as an editor of a Marxist newspaper called People. He wanted to organise unions and build a political party that would abolish government once it grew. The Unions of the Socialist Trade and Labour Alliance formed under him. He emphasised politics as the road to power. Debs was more successful than De Leon; see "Eugene V. Debs".
Pinkertons
A private security guard/detective agency, they were often hired to curb indignant unionists and were involved in the Homestead Strike, the Pullman Strike, and the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, all on behalf of large businesses.
IWW
Also known as "The Wobblies", it was based in the Western Federation of Miners (focusing on mining and lumber in the West), and comprised of people who opposed AFL's exclusive unions (skilled workers only). It was designed to be one big union, much like the Knights of Labour, and was the only union that was inclusive no matter gender, occupation, race, or otherwise. Its ultimate goal was "syndicalism"; the destruction of government and its replacement by a big union. However, because of policy disagreements founders withdrew and only William D. Haywood held it together. Ultimately, the Wobblies initial idea was flawed, as the demographics they reached out to -ethnic groups and migratory workers- had very little influence. Strikes led to its decline, and members were branded as anarchists and criminals.
Big Bill Haywood and Joe Hill
Bill Haywood was the remaining leader of the Wobblies/the Western Federation, and held the group together. He was a very imposing figure and commanded attention. A miner, union organiser, and socialist, he despised the conservative labor philosophy the AFl used. He promoted the concept of an all-inclusive union. He eventually fled to the Soviet Union and married. Joe Hill (Swedish American singer + labor organizer) is a man turned martyr, a labor organiser who was executed by firing squad when framed for murder. His last words were written to Hayward, calling for him to organise; his martyrdom ensured that the idea of a classless society would not die.
Political Machines and Corruption
urban political machines developed (local committeemen and district captains led by a political boss), distribute food, coal and money to the poor
Tenements
where workers (often immigrants, like the Chinese) in the big cities were forced to live which created sanitation problems
Poo, sewage, and sanitation
lots of problems such as health issues and sanitation issues. ex. chronic problem of impure water, water diseases such as: Cholera, typhoid, and yellow fever.
Sanitation reform: replaced horses with electric streetcars.
Later on flush toilets, sewer systems, and public water became available.
Ellis Island
opened doors to "huge masses of the world." It served as a refuge for new immigrants, many of whom did not know English and escaped native land because of bad living conditions, political reasons etc.
Angel Island
WEST COAST, Chinese immigrants needed to pass through this island as it was opened up to process Asians after the Chinese Exclusion Act was instilled.
Pushes
Immigrants took flight from famine or lack of opportunity in their native lands, as well as existing racial/religious/political persecution.
Pulls
Big businesses sent out recruiting agents and tempting propaganda to entice immigrants into migrating; the Contract Labour Act was passed, in which the federal government would pay for an immigrant's passage to America. This was because Industries sought cheap/contract labor (immigrants from Europe, slaves, jews,etc.)
Sandlot Incident
a meeting to express sympathy for railroad strikers ended with attacks on passing Chinese, chinese were scapegoats for white laborers
Chinese Exclusion Act
first fed law to restrict immigration on basis of race (shut door to chinese immigrants for 10 years). It came out of the fact that the Chinese were not white, not Christian, and many illiterate, and thought to be stealing industrial jobs (for example, working on the Central Pacific Rails). Denis Kearney is an Irish immigrant that organized Workingmen's Party of CA to end chinese immigration
Cable Act: White women lose citizenship for marrying foreign men
Special Taxes: Cannot testify against white people
Progressives, Policies and Presidents
Progressivism
crusaded against abuses of urban political bosses and corporate robber barons, goals of democracy, honest and efficient govt, biz regulation, social justice (populism as a catalyst)
Muckcrackers
Reporters that exposed the populists and achieved support for the progressives
Progressive Policies
power of democracy (direct primary and nomination of candidates by vote of all party members, south dakota adopted initiative and referendum for direct voting), efficiency (authority in a board of elected head of city departments, and idea of a city manager running municipal govt), regulation of corporations (laissez faire and letting companies work it out, socialist, trust busting), social justice (charities, women's temperance union, child labor, triangle shirtwaist factory fire in New York City), prohibition
Progressive Presidents
Presidents all sought to be "progressive", as seen in the Election of 1912; everything was new, and reform was popular. Roosevelt was a prime example; he believed that socio/economic conditions were different and improving past the government, and thus activism and reform was needed. He worked to expand the federal government and treated politics as an "art of [the] possible". See "Teddy Roosevelt's Domestic Policy".
Election of 1912
This was between Woodrow Wilson and Henry Taft representing Democratic and Republican parties, Eugene Debs representing the socialist party, and Roosevelt leading the Progressive party. They all agreed on a basic progressive assumption (every president wanted to be "progressive!"), and believed the government needed a bigger role to handle bigger businesses. The contest finally settled to Roosevelt's New Nationalism (where a big and strong central government was used to achieve progressive/democratic goals) versus Wilson's New Freedom (allowing the government to promote social justice and reform). The main difference was that Roosevelt respected monopolies, whereas Wilson wanted to break up all large industry. However, due to the fact that the republican vote was split between Taft and Roosevelt, Wilson was able to win the presidency. This election was the first to feature presidential primaries and a hallmark of progressivism, as all candidates boasted some form of it.
16 Amendment
This allowed income tax to be collected on a federal level.
17th Amendment
The Senate is now elected through popular vote.
18th Amendment
prohibits sale of alcohol
19th Amendment
women can vote
Spanish American War
-revolution of cuban nationalist against Spanish colonial admin, (Cuban Jose Marti vs. Weyler), US remained neutral but were interested in the war b/c the $50 million they invested in cuba was at stake and of the cubans in the U.S. pushing the govt to recognize the cuban govt
- causes: cuban revolution (affects US sugar market),20,000 cubans living in US created a committee to agitate for independence, also raising funds to fight war, sold stories to the Yellow Press
- civilization bears much of the actual suffering
- people argue that free Cuba would expand markets for the US, tobacco imports from embattled island were shrinking, friendly Cuba would protect East approaches in Panama Canal
- Mckinley who successes Cleveland does not want to go to war either
- much of public saw intervention as moral duty but diplomats worried about response from Europe
- Yellow Press shows Spanish government how bad their oppression is and Mckinley notifies Spanish gov't that conduct was unacceptable and if it continued US would take action
- USS Maine an american ship in Havana Harbor killed 260 of her crew, caused by underwater mine
- Mckinley gets $50 million for war and goes to Congress to ask authority to use force against Spain
- Teller Amendment: US has no intention of annexing Cuba, but will authorize war
Dollar Diplomacy
TAFT - Dollar Diplomacy is the type of diplomacy that emphasises economic strength and entangled trade relations (i.e. making countries codependent on each other for trade) over military strength when it comes to influencing other countries.
- manages financial affairs of backwards economic companies
White Man;s Burden
Originally a poem written about the Philippine/American war, it talked about how imperialism was good, and a "burden", as it brought civilisation/progress/innovation to "uncivilised" countries at "great cost" of the imperialists/white men.
Phillipines
congress authorized use of force against spanish, US navy well prepared and outgunned the spanish protecting the Philippines (The Battle of Manila Bay)
- US had more modern ships, Spanish had old ships that required batteries
- George Dewey vs. Admiral Montojo
- US wins and gets the Phillipines
Zimmerman Telgram
A telegram sent between Germany and Mexico where Germany promised to give Mexico their former land, now annexed by America, if they would fight for the Axis powers.
Lusitania
An American passenger ship that was shot by a German torpedo. This, along with the Zimmerman Telegram, led to America entering the war.
• 123 americans
• carried ammunition so the german had reason to shoot them
• germans said they would shoot any passenger ship so taking risk of traveling on British ship was risky for America
Platt Amendment
• to keep Cuba from doing stuff with anyone else
-"guarantees Cuba independence
• can't enter treaty with other powers
• can't assume contract of public debt
- gives US right to intervene in Cuba to protect indpendence
14 Points
A program for peace that called for open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, removal of trade barriers, demilitarisation, and an adjustment of colonies. It also called for a relation of a league of nations. However, when prodded, Wilson (the creator) did not respond to calls for adding an end to racial discrimination to the list.



self determination: nations and ethnic groups should be independent

open international system: no more secret treaties, lower tariffs freedom of the sea, globalize trade and interconnection will bring peace

league of nations- open international organization to solve problems between nations
Phillip Armour
in charge of meat packing industry
14th Amendment in action
Supreme court applies it to corporations like they are people, so states can't regulate corporations
Sedition Act
oroginally the Espionage act
- prison sentences up to 20 years fir anyone who in times of war willfully cauled insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal to serve, or publishes bad thigs about, army, us gov't, constitution, or army uniform
- Eugene Debs went to jail for speaking out against war
actions/policies the government implements to prepare for war
National Defense Act: increased army from 80,000 to 223,000, brought state militias under fed cntrol, gave president power to mobilize National Guard and increases National Guard to 400,000, established JUnior Reserve Officer Training Corps

Naval Expansion Act: multi year building plan 10 dreadnoughts, 16 cruisers, 50 destroyers

Merchant Marine Act: Federal gov't can own ships, increases federal power to regulate shipping

- war labor board
-food administration
- RR admin
- war industries board
- public information
- fuel administration
Yellow Journalism
• led by William Randolph Hurst and Joseph Pulitzer
• group of sensationalist newspapers who want to combat rivals by publishing shocking stories gotten from Cuban committee in US about Spanish oppression, used to try and combat other newspapers and Spanish gov't
reasons for US neutrality
• didn't know who to support, nation split on british and russian immigrants favoring allies and german and austrian favoring central
- US businesses thrive with modern war need for industrial goods
- USA traditionally remains out of European affairs
- Wilson doesn't support solving issues through war
Roosevelt Corollary
- realeased instead of Monroe Doctorine when European Nations start getting involved with Venezuela
- if nations in south and centeral american cannot keep in order and threatened outside civilized world, US could step in and manage their finances for them
Moral Diplomacy
- foreign policy that would encourage human rights and development of constitutional liberty