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569 terms

Geography Study

STUDY
PLAY
1. Why are maps so important?
We use them all the time
We use both paper and digital maps
Maps are everywhere
Maps tap into innate human knowledge called spatial thinking
All of the above
All of the above
Which method of human reasoning makes most use of spatial reasoning?
Oracy
Literacy
Numeracy
Graphicacy
Catalhoyukacy
Graphicacy
Graphicacy and spatial reasoning make use of:( 1.1-3 )
A dictionary, a thesaurus and a pad of paper
A debate coach, a rhetoric class and voice lessons
A pocket calculator, on-line computing tool and a ruler
Visual aids, maps, photographs, charts and graphs
Stucco, pigments and a paint brush
Visual Aids, maps, photographs, charts, and graphs
Understanding mapping history, unencoding maps' meaning, knowing how maps are constructed, and seeing how maps are structured and the rules they follow will help you:( 1.1-5 )
Win friends and influence people
Fill your spare time
Finish the Sunday crossword puzzle
Travel to Turkey
Unlock your graphicacy
Unlock your graphicacy
Humans first migrated out of Africa:( 1.2-2 )
15 000 years ago
60 000 years ago
60 000 000 years ago
6 000 years ago
After the end of Apartheid
60000 years ago
Cave painting first appeared:( 1.2-2 )
Last Friday
15 000 years ago
40 000 years ago
120 000 years ago
In the late Cretaceous period
40000 years ago
The earliest maps were probably used for:( 1.2-3 )
hunting
reconnaissance
avoiding hazards
route finding
All of the above
All of the above
Catalhoyuk is in modern day:( 1.2.1-2 )
France
Texas
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Greece
Turkey
The Catalhoyuk mural/map is in a museum in what city?( 1.2.1-5 )
Ankara
Istanbul
Paris
London
The map did not survive
Ankara
What two features does the Catalhoyuk map allegedly show?( 1.2.1-7 )
A river and a swamp
A hill and a valley
A volcano with two peaks and a town plan
A town plan and a swamp
The lost gold mines of the Ottoman empire
A volcano with two peaks and a town plan
Stephanie Meese in a 2006 paper claimed the mural actually showed:( 1.2.1-9 )
A geometric design and a leopard skin
Two maps
A view of a goddess
A hunting plan
How to exit the room in an emergency
A geometric design and leopard skin
One of the reasons Meese believed this about the mural is that:( 1.2.4-2 )
Mellart changed his own interpretation
The colors clashed
Leopards are cuter
The drawing was upside down
All of the above
Mellart changed his own interpretation
To walk from Catalhoyuk to Hasan Dagi would take:( 1.2.2-1 )
Fourteen minutes
Fourteen hours
Fourteen days
Fourteen months
Fourteen years
C
Where is Abauntz cave?( 1.2.5-3 )
France
Spain
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Greece
B
What was found in Abauntz cave?( 1.2.5-2 )
What may be the world's oldest map
A guru
Another cave
The Dead Sea scrolls
A living Neanderthal woman
A
Which computer software allows you to zoom into an image of anywhere on earth?( 1.2.2-1 )
Google scholar
Google Earth
Map Builder
Windows 9
GPSap
B
What software is a user-contributed free road map of the whole earth? ( 1.2.5-3 )
Streemap
ClosedStreetMap
Openstreetmap
GoogleMap
YouTube
C
The world's oldest map was probably used for:( 1.2.5-6 )
Fishing
Taxation
Conquest of other tribes
Decoration
Hunting
E
Geography 12 is intended to teach you:( 1.3-2 )
Spatial reasoning and thinking
Map geometry, construction and content, practical map use, reading and navigation
Map representation, Cartometry and map analysis
Basics of cartography's sister disciplines
All of the above
E
The expectations of you for Geography 12 are to:( 1.3-5 )
Review online modules on schedule
Attend lab, and submit labs in a timely fashion
Read the book and materials, ask questions and provide evaluations
Think spatially
All of the above
E
Approximately what shape is the earth?( 2.2-3 )
Flat
Round
Donut-shaped
Cylindrical
Disk-shaped, balanced on the back of four elephants, each standing on a turtle's back
B
Which geometric model gives the most accurate and precise description of the earth's surface, but is only occasionally used in mapping?( 2.12-2 )
Sphere
Oblate ellipsoid
Geoid
Prolate ellipsoid
Witch's hat
C
The distance of 10 000 000 meters is approximately:( 2.5-8 )
The radius of the earth
The length of the polar axis around which the earth rotates
The circumference of the earth
The distance from the equator to the North Pole, on the meridian passing through Paris
The length of the longer axis of the ellipsoid
D
4. If your eyes are at about 1.7m high, about how far away can you see a golf ball on the ground on a perfectly clear day in a flat open area:( 2.6-6 )
1 998 m
9.81m
4 998m
10 000 000m
111 111m
C
5. The reference point used for mapping the USA on the NAD27 datum was:( 2.10-2 )
The International Date Line
The Top of the Washington Monument
The Paris Meridian
A single point at Meades Ranch, Kansas
The tip of George Washington's nose
D
6. The scholar who estimated the Earth's radius using a camel train, a well, and an obelisk was:( 2.5-2 )
Ibn Syene
Alexandria
Alexander Ross Clarke
Eratosthenes
Ptolemy
D
7. What is defined as: the study of the size and shape of the earth and the properties of its magnetic and gravity fields( 2.1-2 )
Geography
Geology
Geophysics
Cartography
Geodesy
E
8. Which of these are part of the planet earth's motion?( 2.1-4 )
Rotation around the sun
Rotation around the polar axis
Rotation within the Milky Way galaxy
Movement of the Milky Way group
All of the above
E
9. Which of these was among Aristotle's proofs for a round earth?( 2.2.1-2 )
The star Polaris is seen lower in the sky as one travels South
The moon appears in the sky in the daytime
Ships can be seen to drop off the edge of the earth
Eclipses can be seen with the earth casting a straight line shadow
Aristotle never proved the earth is round
A
10. What is an analemma?( 2.1-5 )
A mathematical proof that can be shown to be incorrect
A species of bird found in Equador at Mitad Del Mundo
A diagram showing the highest position of the sun at every day during the year, often shown on globes
A figure that looks like a "6"
The last word left in a crossword puzzle
C
11. One way the earth was shown to be round in this module was:( 2.2.1-7 )
By observing the sun's position at noon
By comparing Cassini's measurements of the length of a degree of latitude
By observing an oil rig off of the coast of California from two positions
By estimation
By observing the star Polaris
C
12. Which of these "experiments" proved that the earth was round?( 2.4-2 )
Ferdinand Magellan's circumnavigation (1519-1521).
The Bedford level experiments and sequels 1870
Cambridge University Geography professor H. Yule Oldham repeat of the Bedford Level experiment in 1901
Direct observation from a balloon in 1931
All of the above
E
13. Cassini and the French Academy of sciences in the 1730s believed the earth a prolate ellipsoid, and Newton predicted an oblate ellipsoid. What analogy is used in the module?( 2.7.1-1 )
Geoid and plane
Eggs and pumpkins
Hot dog and hamburger
Paper or plastic
Egg on toast
B
14. The dispute over the shape of the earth was resolved by taking measurements:( 2.7.1-5 )
All around the equator
At the North Pole
The length of the Paris meridian, from Dunkirk to Collioure
At the equator and near the Arctic circle
The length of the Amazon River
D
15. First to publish results confirming the earth as an oblate ellipsoid was:( 2.7.1-6 )
Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis in 1738
Charles Marie de la Condamine in 1751
Pierre Bouguer in 1749
Isaac Newton in 1687
John Hampden in 1870
A
16. A spheroid or ellipsoid is:( 2.8-2 )
the three dimensional figure traced by an ellipse rotated about either of its foci
the three dimensional figure traced out by an ellipse rotated about its longer axis
the three dimensional figure traced out by an ellipse rotated about its shorter axis
the two dimensional figured traced out by a pencil guided by a loop of string constrained by two nails
a slightly dented sphere
C
17. Geodetic latitude( 2.7.1-11 )
is the angle east-west measured at 90 degrees to the earth's surface
is the angle east-west measured to the earth's center
is the angle north-south measured at 90 degrees to the earth's surface
is the angle north-south measured to the earth's center
is the same as the geocentric latitude at all places
C
18. Meades Ranch, Kansas is known as:( 2.10-2 )
The place where cattle were introduced into Kansas
Where Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis measured the length or a meridian arc
The headquarters of the USGS
The point that Google Earth zooms into by default
E
19. The North American Datum of 1927 used which Ellipsoid?( 2.10-2 )
WGS84
Clarke 1866
ITRF
GEOID12
GRS80
B
20. The North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) uses an ellipsoid that is almost identical to:( 2.10-5 )
GRS80 and WGS84
NAD27
WGS72
WGS66
EGM96
A
21. Which definition is that of a geoid?( 2.12-2 )
A set of reference points on the Earth's surface against which position measurements are made
An ellipse rotated about its minor (shorter) axis
The equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field which best fits, in a least squares sense, global mean sea level
Is the angle north-south measured at 90 degrees to the earth's surface
Spherical masses of mineral matter that were deposited syngenetically within the rock formations they are found in.
C
22. Geoids are usually described as:( 2.12-2 )
The positional distance from the same point on an ellipsoid
The height above or below an ellipsoid
Rock formations
Angular deviations between geodetic and geocentric latitudes
Geoids cannot be described
B
23. In 1870, what experiment to prove the earth's curvature involved a bet between John Hampden and Alfred Russel Wallace? ( 2.2.1-8 )
The oil rig leg experiment
Eratosthenes's well experiment
Measuring a meridional arc
The Bedford Level experiment
The big bang theory
D
24. Any particular star appears to advance its position against the sky's daily cycle by:( 2.1-4 )
One degree per day
365 degrees per decade
10 000 000 meters a year
One astrological sign a day
111 111m a month
A
25. The star around which the night sky appears to revolve is called:( 2.1-3 )
Astrolabe
Ptolemy
Pluto
Copernicus
Polaris
E
1. The three map transformations to be covered in this class are:( 3.2-3 )
RF, rods, and meters
generalization, abstraction and labeling
scale, projection and symbolization
English, American and Australian
globes, maps and charts
C
2. Cartographic scale is a function of:( 3.1-7 )
map resolution and extent
the shape of the area mapped
the width of the map to be made
how thin you can make lines on a map
how much ink you have available
A
3. What is a representative fraction?( 3.3-7 )
The map distance, divided by the ground distance in the same units
The map distance, divided by the ground distance in different units
The ground distance, divided by the map distance in the same units
The ground distance, multiplied by the map distance in the same units
The map distance divided by 100 000
A
4. The scale model of New York in the Queens museum is at 1:1 200. This means that:( 3.3-7 )
One meter corresponds to 12 meters
One meter corresponds to 120 meters
One inch corresponds to 1200 feet
One inch corresponds to 100 feet
One inch corresponds to one meter
D
5. What object is the maximum size that can be represented by a fine pencil dot at 1:24 000?( 3.3.1-4 )
A baseball
A beachball
A smart car
An amphibious landing craft
LaGuardia airport
C
6. If a measured length on a map is 10 millimeters, and the object on the ground is 100m long, what is the RF?( 3.3-7 )
1:1
1:1 000
1:10 000
1:1 000 000
1:5280
3
7. If the RF is 1:50 000, and the ground distance is 1km, what is the map distance?( 3.3.1-3 )
0.02 m
0.05 m
0.1 m
20 m
0.02 km
a
8. What is defined as: "A graduated line that indicates the length of miles or kilometers as they appear on a map; the line has the advantage of remaining true after the map is enlarged or reduced in reproduction. Also known as bar scale."( 3.4-2 )
A color chart
A map projection
A legend
A graticule
A graphic scale
e
9. Why is a graphic scale often graded differently to the left and right of the central zero point?( 3.3.3-1 )
Cartographers sometimes make mistakes
So that English and metric units can both be used
So that left and right handed people can use the map
So that large distances can be marked off first using the paper strip trick, and the remainder measured in more detail on the left.
The scale is usually printed in China.
e
10. What is the metric unit of length?( 3.5.1-2 )
the meter
the kilogram
the hectare
the acre
the decimeter
A
11. Which is a metric unit of area?( 3.5.1-3 )
the acre
the square toise
the fathom
the hectare
the ox plow
D
12. Metric units became legal for use in the United States in:( 3.5-2 )
1776
1866
1977
1492
They are not legal in the United States
B
13. The conversion of US mapping in 1983 associated with the new NAD83 datum:( 3.5-2 )
Converted grids from feet to meters
Maintained use of feet in thousands
Changed the size of the earth
Restored the rod, chain and furlong as the basis of US mapping
Led to street riots and rebellions
A
14. When you zoom in on a map:( 3.6.1-1 )
You see more features
You see more labels
You see more detailed features
You see less area
All of the above
E
15. An acre is( 3.5.2-10 )
One chain wide by ten chains long
One rod wide by ten chains long
Ten chains by ten chains
Ten rods by ten rods
A mile wide and an inch deep
A
16. The English units of the rod and the chain were standardized as 16.5 and 66 feet by:( 3.5.2-7 )
Edmund Gunter in 1620
The French Academy of Sciences
The US congress
Thomas Jefferson
Mr. Rodney Chain, in 1998
A
17. The meter was originally defined as:( 3.5.1-2 )
One yard and one hand
100th of a stone's throw
The distance between King Henry I's nose and the tip of his thumb
One ten millionth of the distance from the equator to the north pole, along the Paris meridian.
Half a perch
D
18. The version of the metric system we now use was standardized in 1960 and renamed:( 3.5.1-2 )
The International Earth Rotation Service
Imperial units
The International System of Units
The Unted Nations
MS60
C
19. Three ways of stating map scale are:( 3.3-1 )
A graphic scale, level of detail and datum
A graphic scale, a verbal statement, such as "one inch to a mile" and the RF
A graphic scale, a scale bar, and a meter
A graphic scale, the legend and the furlong
A verbal statement, a legend, and a foor
B
20. Zooming ends when:( 3.6.1-1 )
You reach the limits of the map's resolution
Features are 0.1mm across
The map extent is the same as the screen size
The level of detail is lowest
Zooming never ends
A
21. Which map scale is rarely used?( 3.4-1 )
1:10 000
1:63 360
1:50 000
1:1M
1:57 123
E
22. At the scale of 1:40M, a map of the earth would be how long at the equator?( 3.3-8 )
4 m
40 m
0.1 m
1 m
0.1 mm
D
23. What would you expect to be labeled on a world map at 1:5M?( 3.3-1 )
Every single stream
All of the worlds cities, towns, and villages
Only places starting with "H"
Major cities and rivers
Nothing could be labeled on such a map
D
24. What would you expect of a minor road on a map at 1:24 000?( 3.3.3-1 )
Minor roads could not be shown
It would be greatly simplified, perhaps as just one or two line segments
It would be colored blue
A great deal of detail would be shown, such as curves and angles
The symbol for the road would be the exact scaled width of the actual road
D
25. After the scale transformation, the earth is represented as:( 3.2-3 )
A map
A projection
A globe
A smart car
A model in Queens, New York
C
1. Why not use globes instead of maps?( 4.1.3-1 )
Globes are easy to store.
You can see all of a globe's surface at once.
Globes on an icosahedron can easily be unfolded flat.
Flat maps can be printed, stored and displayed on a computer with ease.
Globes are much cheaper than maps.
d
2. Which definition is that of a map projection?:( 4.2-2 )
Any method used in cartography to represent the two dimensional curved surface of the earth or other body on a plane
The inverse of the representative fraction
A conformal aspect
The transverse of the secant Mercator
The device invented by John Harrison
A
3. Which map projection statement is false?( 4.15-9 )
No flat map can be both equivalent and conformal
Conformal projections preserve local shape and direction
Equivalent projections preserve area
Map projection distortion can be seen at confluences on the graticule
Tissot's indicatrixes are always circles
E
4. What would you expect of a projection in which x depends only on longitude and y only on latitude?( 4.4-3 )
The graticule would form curves
The projection would be cylindrical
The projection would be transverse
It would be a Mollweide projection
The projection would be conic
B
5. Are all map projections distorted?( 4.5-1 )
No, because no flat map can be both equivalent and conformal
Only equatorial projections are distorted, secant projections are error free
Yes
No, because projections are based on mathematics
Most are distorted, some are just contorted
C
6. What is a graticule?( 4.6-2 )
The pattern of tiny circles drawn on a map projection
The line around the edge of the map, shaped by the gores and interruptions
The grid of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude shown on the map
The grid of parallels of longitude and meridians of latitude shown on the map
A very small grat
C
7. If the graticule on a projected map has lines that meet at right angles:( 4.15-1 )
The projection is secant
The map has two standard parallels
The projection is equivalent
The projection is conformal
It is impossible for the graticule to meet at different angles
D
8. What is the Degree Confluence Project:( 4.7.1-1 )
A web site to promote us "all getting along"
An iPhone and Android App to give navigation directions
A lobbying group trying to revert to the Washington Meridian
A web site where people who have visited places where whole numbers of degrees of latitude and longitude meet can post pictures and stories
A conformal projection
D
9. Which is not one of the four hemispheres?( 4.8-2 )
Eastern hemisphere
Southern hemisphere
Western hemisphere
Northern hemisphere
Cerebral hemisphere
E
10. Slicing the earth (or an apple) along parallels of latitude divides the earth into?( 4.9-1 )
Unequal sized slices
Equal sized slices
Hemispheres
Meridians
A
11. John Harrison perfected the chronometer. This allowed the accurate measurement of longitude because:( 4.10-5 )
Of the 1884 International Meridian Conference
It created Greenwich mean time
Because the earth turns through 15 degree of longitude every hour
Because it made the lunar distance method possible
of the Harrison projection
C
12. Where is the Washington meridian?( 4.11-5 )
Paris, France
Greenwich, England
Seattle, Washington
Washington, D. C.
Along the equator
D
13. Which of these is the correct way to write a latitude and longitude position?( 4.12-2 )
38.8998339 -77.0463660
385359N 0770247W
N385359W0770247
38°53.98' N 77°02.78'W
All of these are correct
E
14. 14 Which of these was decided at the International Meridian Conference?( 4.14-5 )
That all maps are created equal
That longitude shall be counted in two directions up to 180 degrees, west longitude being plus and east longitude minus.
That longitude shall be counted in two directions up to 180 degrees, east longitude being plus and west longitude minus.
That latitude shall be counted in two directions up to 90 degrees, north latitude being plus and south latitude minus
That the conference supports the multiplicity of initial meridians
C
15. Which of these projection types preserves area?( 4.5-6 )
Transverse
Secant
Equivalent
Conformal
Equidistant
C
16. Which of these projection types preserves direction and shape locally?( 4.5-5 )
Transverse
Secant
Equivalent
Conformal
Equidistant
D
17. What is true of compromise projections?( 4.15-6 )
They preserve local direction and shape
They preserve area
They preserve both direction/shape and area
They preserve neither direction/shape nor area
They are cylindrical
D
18. What is an example of a map projection web mapping software program?( 4.16-2 )
Earthsqueeze
Flexizones
Flex Projector
Map Projector Plus
Coordinate Converter
C
19. On an equivalent projection:( 4.15-9 )
All the Tissot's indicatrix circles are circular
All of the Tissot's indicatrix circles are elliptical
All of the Tissot's indicatrix circles are different area
All of the Tissot's indicatrix circles are the same area
It is impossible to draw Tissot's indicatrix circles
D
20. On the equatorial aspect of Mercator's projection:( 4.18-3 )
Lines of any fixed compass bearing are straight
All parallels and meridians are straight lines
Local direction and shape is preserved
The poles cannot be shown
All of the above
E
21. Mercator's projection was and is most useful for( 4.17-2 )
Showing population statistics
Making historical maps
Navigation out of sight of land
Its equal spacing of parallels
Its unequal spacing of meridians
C
22. What is true of secant projections?( 4.19-1 )
They can be used for azimuthal, cylindrical or conic projections
They can be used for equatorial, oblique or transverse aspect
The projection surface cuts through the globe surface
If the line of secancy is a parallel, it is called a standard parallel
All of the above
E
23. Which projection has been optimized for covering the 50 United States?( 4.20-2 )
Lambert conformal conic
Winkel Tripel
Robinson
Mollweide
GS-50
E
24. The majority of projections used for mapping the United States are:( 4.20-5 )
Oblique
Conic
Tangent, not secant
Conformal
Equivalent
D
25. Why is it sometimes hard to tell what projection a map uses?( 4.21-4 )
The formula is too complicated
The graticule is hard to read
Because projections are usually named after their originators
Because the cartographer did not label with map with the name of the projection
Because of the defaults in FlexProjector
D
1. What is located at 51° 28' 38"N 0° 0' 0"E?( 5.4.1-4 )
Moscow, Idaho.
Greenwich, England.
Greenwich, Connecticut.
Hong Kong.
Nowhere, Oklahoma.
B
2. A system that allows locations on earth to be described by at least two numbers is called:( 5.4-2 )
A map projection.
An ellipsoid.
A land partitioning system.
A coordinate system.
Zip plus four.
D
3. Why are place names not completely adequate for describing locations?( 5.1-2 )
They depend on language
They are not unique
They vary over time
There are many places with the same name
All of the above
E
4. Where do we absolutely need coordinates?( 5.2.2-1 )
Where there are no landmarks
Where all landmarks are the same as each other
Where landmarks have been removed or destroyed
When you are lost
All of the above
E
5. Why does the location of a place, such as Denver, Colorado, vary?( 5.2.1-1 )
Because different sources give different locations
Because different sources at different coordinate resolutions are all in the same place
Because continental drift moves the buildings
They have to, by Act of Congress
Because the "real" Denver is in Ohio, not Colorado.
A
6. Which statement is false?( 5.3.1-1 )
Relative positioning systems use references to other places
Regardless of which Paris, the airport is in grid cell E8
Standardized grids use absolute coordinates and specific or false origins
Most grids are adjusted so that eastings (x) and northings (y) are positive
All coordinates are relative
B
7. Grid systems use projections because:( 5.4.1-2 )
Geographic coordinates are based on angles, not distances
They need to minimize or account for error due to the earth's curvature
They need to be tied to a specific datum
The earth is not flat
All of the above
E
8. Using geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) is insufficient for grids because:( 5.4.1-2 )
You get different locations depending on the choice of ellipsoid
Geographic coordinates are angles at the center of the earth, not distances
The length of a degree of longitude depends on its latitude
Geographic coordinates work for the sphere and ellipsoid, not a flat plane
All of the above
E
9. Tiny, Virginia is at 17SLB8986407347. This coordinate resolves to what resolution on the ground?( 5.6-7 )
1mm
1cm
1m
10m
100m
10. Which of these is the coordinate for Nowhere, Oklahoma in Civilian UTM coordinates?( 5.5.1-1 )
14SND5080090837
202621 559709 OK S NAD83
C
10. Which of these is the coordinate for Nowhere, Oklahoma in Civilian UTM coordinates?( 5.5.1-1 )
14SND5080090837
202621 559709 OK S NAD83
550800mE 3890837mN 14N
YZG8054562827
14SND5080090837 (NAD83)
C
11. Which of these is the coordinate for Nowhere, Oklahoma in Military Grid coordinates?( 5.5.2-1 )
14SND5080090837
202621 559709 OK S NAD83
550800mE 3890837mN 14N
YZG8054562827
14SND5080090837 (NAD83)
A
12. Which of these is the coordinate for Nowhere, Oklahoma in US National Grid coordinates?( 5.5.4-5 )
14SND5080090837
202621 559709 OK S NAD83
550800mE 3890837mN 14N
YZG8054562827
14SND5080090837 (NAD83)
E
13. Which of these is the coordinate for Nowhere, Oklahoma in State Plane coordinates?( 5.5.3-1 )
14SND5080090837
202621 559709 OK S NAD83
550800mE 3890837mN 14N
YZG8054562827
14SND5080090837 (NAD83)
B
14. Which of these coordinates is NOT either the North or South Pole?( 5.5.2.1-1 )
AZM9999999999
YZG8054562827
YZG9999999999
2 000 000mE 2 000 000mN Zone NP
2 000 000mE 2 000 000mN Zone SP
B
15. Which of these is NOT true about the US National grid?( 5.5.4-5 )
It was adopted in 2004
It provides a grid reference system that is seamless across jurisdictional boundaries
It applies to the whole planet
It is the foundation for a universal map index
It supports use in the Global Positioning System and is useful in Web map portals
C
16. What is the name of the current National grid system in Australia?( 5.5.4-10 )
Australian National grid system
Map Grid of Australia
Wallaby Grid System of 1996 (WGS96)
State Plane Coordinate System
MGRS
B
17. What is the correct difference between the US National Grid and the Military Grid system?( 5.5.4-6 )
USNG uses different numbering for the UTM zones.
MGRS uses different letters for the 100,000m grid cells.
MGRS is based on the equivalent 6 x 8 degree cells.
MGRS uses NAD27, USNG uses WGS84
USNG uses NAD83, not WGS84
E
18. Which statement about UTM is true?( 5.5.1-1 )
The earth is divided into 120 zones.
Zones are numbered west to east, starting at the prime meridian.
Each zone is drawn on an equatorial Mercator projection, centered on the central meridian.
Eastings in zones are in meters with the central meridian set at 500,000.
The system only can resolve locations within 100m.
D
19. Which statement is true about the State Plane Coordinate System?( 5.5.3-1 )
Projections used are the oblique and transverse Mercator, plus the Lambert conformal conic
It is based on feet, with artificial grid origins 500,000 feet west of the central meridian
It covers the United States, Great Britain, and Australia.
It covers the whole world
It divides the nation into 110 zones, using their grid cell designators from UTM
A
20. A letter/number designator in the MGRS, such as 16TDM, references a cell that is how big on a side?( 5.5.2-13 )
100m
1000m
10,000m
100,000m
1,000,000m
D
21. How many numbered UTM zones are there?( 5.5.1-5 )
12
2 end zones, 20 main zones
60
110
111,111
C
22. The approximate length of a degree at the equator and the earth's circumference are:( 5.6-3 )
100,000m; 40,000km
500,000m; 93 million miles
250,000m; 1,000,000 km
111,111m; 40,000,000m
360 degrees; 24 hours
D
23. When using letters for 6 x 8 degree grid cell designators, and for 100,000 grid cells in MGRS and the US National grid, what letters are excluded?( 5.5.2-7 )
A, E, I, O, U
G, R, I, D
A, B, Y, Z
I, O
N and S
D
24. What is at 16TDM4037436640?( 5.5.2-17 )
West Garfield Park, Chicago
Nowhere, Oklahoma
the North Pole
Paris, France
Honolulu, Hawaii
A
25. Which is FALSE about the State Plane coordinate system?( 5.5.3-1 )
It is used in surveying, land ownership records and engineering.
Before 1983 it used thousands of feet and NAD27, but since then meters and NAD84
In 1983, many states changes their origins, and some their zones and projections
It covers the USA in 110 zones
Only the panhandle of Texas uses the oblique Mercator projection, all others use the transverse Mercator and Lambert conformal conic.
E
1. What impact does land partitioning have on the landscape?( 6.1-7 )
It determines the shape of fields
It assigns people to police, fire, school and voting districts
It can lead to long straight roads
It impacts land ownership, property inheritance and taxation
All of the above
E
2. Grids and coordinate systems refer only to points and squares. What do land partitioning systems refer to?( 6.1-2 )
Points
Lines
Areas, polygons and parcels
Topography
The earth's core
C
3. Land partitioning systems assign what to each land parcel?( 6.1-7 )
A price
A height
A township
A dominion
A label (or code)
E
4. The surveyors who measured fields after the Nile floods in Egypt thousands of years ago were called:( 6.2-3 )
Gunter's People
Pharaohs
Nileometers
Rope stretchers
Tomb robbers
D
5. The instrument Romans used to lay out towns, roads and fields that measured right angles was called the:( 6.2-4 )
Ruler
Gunter's chain
Plumb bob
Gromon
Triangle
D
6. The Roman land partitioning system that allocated fields of 20 x 20 actus was called:( 6.2-5 )
Centuriation
Dominionation
Pax Romanus
The Public Land Survey System
Metes and Bounds
A
7. Remnants of centuriation, called "hundreds" in England, made their way to the US in which state?( 6.2-7 )
Kansas
Delaware
Hawaii
Nebraska
North Dakota
B
8. The metes and bounds system was used to partition which parts of the US?( 6.3-2 )
the Mid-west
California, Oregon and Washington
Only New England
The 13 original colonies
The rust belt
D
9. Metes and Bounds were also used to partition:( 6.3-8 )
French long lots and Spanish/Mexican land grants
The Wind River district in Wyoming
Ohio's seven ranges
Illinois
Western Canada
A
10. The US Public Land Survey System used what units for length and area?( 6.3-6 )
Meters and hectares
Feet and furlongs
Poles and Actus
Chains, miles and acres
Stones, pounds and kilograms
D
11. What is now Ohio was originally claimed by what state as its "Western Reserve"?( 6.4.1-8 )
Vermont
Virginia
Texas
New York
Connecticut
E
12. Who sent Thomas Hutchins to Ohio to start the Public Land Survey?( 6.4.1-5 )
John Hancock
George Washington
Thomas Jefferson
Richard Nixon
None of these
C
13. Hutchins alerted the president to what fact?( 6.4.1-5 )
Ohio is a swing state
They needed rods marked in meters
The job would be done in two weeks
The survey would have to compensate for the curvature of the earth
Help was hard to find out there
D
14. What can be found in East Liverpool, Ohio at 17TNE4066799180?( 6.4.1-6 )
Thomas Hutchins grave
the Western Reserve
The Fire Lands of Connecticut
The point of beginning of the US Public Land Surveys
The prime meridian
D
15. President Jefferson wanted states to be about:( 6.4.2-2 )
640 acres
5° of longitude by 5° of latitude
4° of longitude by 7° of latitude
4° of latitude by 7° of longitude
36 square miles
D
16. Which statement is correct for the USPLSS?( 6.4.2-2 )
The baseline stretched east-west, and the principal meridian north-south from the principal point
The baseline stretched north-south, and the principal meridian east-west from the principal point
The baseline and the principal meridian met at 45 degrees
The baseline was always kept fixed
The geographers line always was more important than the base line
A
17. How many sections are there in a Township?( 6.4.2-14 )
1
16
36
100
64
C
18. Correction for the earth's curvature was made by:( 6.4.2-8 )
Remarking the principal meridian every 24 miles (2 sections) along the base line.
Estimation
Making every 24th Township a hexagon instead of a square
Making the squares longer and thinner as they got further north and south
Remarking the base line every 24 miles (4 sections) along the Principal meridian.
E
19. The revenue from Section 16 in each township was set aside for:( 6.4.2-8 )
Road construction
To subsidise the growing of corn and wheat
The sheriff of the County
Public education
A rainy day
D
20. On USGS 1:24,000 topographic map, section lines and numbers are shown in:( 6.4.2-11 )
Black
Blue
Red
Green
Pink
C
21. Which is a legitimate Township and Range description:( 6.4.2-13 )
14SMG8644387036
NE1/2SW1/2 Section 37, Township 2N Range 3E, 5th Principal Meridian
NE1/4SW1/4 Section 5, Township 2W Range 5S, 7th Principal Meridian
NE1/4SE1/4) of Section 35, Township 25S Range 17W, 6th Principal Meridian
All of the above
D
22. The Canadian Dominion Land Survey differs in which of the following ways from the USPLSS?( 6.5-2 )
Townships are given arabic numerals, Ranges Roman.
The section numbers start in the lower right, instead of the upper right
It covers western Canada, rather than the US
A subdivision of a section into 16 parts is possible, called a Legal Sub-Division
All of the above
E
23. Other examples of land partitioning are:( 6.6-1 )
Cadastral or land ownership maps
Voting districts
Counties
School districts
All of the above
E
24. Congressional districts are a land partitioning such that:( 6.6-6 )
Each state has the same number
All political parties get equal land area
Each state gets at least one, but otherwise all contain equal numbers of voters
The boundaries follow major rivers
Red and blue states alternate across the map
C
25. An example of a perceptual region is:( 6.7-1 )
A street gang's territory
A congressional district
A USPLSS township
A school district
A Municipio
A
1. A map is:( 7.1-2 )
A scaled model of all or part of the earth's surface
Features are converted to symbols
Involves simplification
Is very critical for spatial reasoning
All of the above
E
2. Making measurements from maps is called:( 7.1-4 )
Mapology
Cartography
Cartosophy
Cartology
Cartometry
E
3. Which is the third and last cartographic transformation?( 7.1-5 )
The scale transformation
The projection transformation
The choice of coordinate system
Convert features to symbols
Printing the map on paper
D
4. Which of these is a map legend?( 7.2-2 )
The black line framing a map
A matched set of symbols with descriptive text
The graphic scale and the text surrounding it
The story of how the map was made
The world's most famous map
B
5. What should be true of a map legend?( 7.2-2 )
All the symbols used in the map should also be on the legend
The symbols set should contain none that are unused on the map or map series
There should be an explanation of how the map deals with missing or unavailable data
The text should be clear and worded unambiguously
All of the above
E
6. An example of a point feature shown on USGS topographic maps is:( 7.3-5 )
School
National Park Boundary
Railroad yard
Coral Reef
USPLSS Section Numbers
A
7. An example of a line feature shown on USGS topographic maps is:( 7.3-6 )
School
National Park Boundary
Railroad yard
Coral Reef
USPLSS Section Numbers
B
8. An example of an area feature shown on USGS topographic maps is:( 7.3-10 )
School
National Park Boundary
Railroad yard
Coral Reef
USPLSS Section Numbers
C
9. An example of a text feature shown on USGS topographic maps is:( 7.3-4 )
School
National Park Boundary
Railroad yard
Coral Reef
USPLSS Section Numbers
E
10. An example of a mixed feature shown on USGS topographic maps is:( 7.3-11 )
School
National Park Boundary
Railroad yard
Coral Reef
USPLSS Section Numbers
C
11. Coordinates can be used to compute the distance between two points by using:( 7.4-2 )
estimation
Eratosthenes' theorem
Pythagoras' theorem
the strip of paper trick
stadia
C
12. Coordinates can be used to compute the direction between two points by using:( 7.4-2 )
A pair of dividers
The PDF toolbar
Simple trigonometry
Complex systems theory
The distance between King Henry I's nose and his thumb
C
13. When computing azimuths from coordinates, you need to account for:( 7.4-6 )
The length of a solar day
The earth's rotation
All of the money you used
Which quadrant you are in
Which quadrangle you are in
D
14. Azimuths range from:( 7.4-5 )
0 to 2 PI
0 to 90
0 to 100
0 to 360
0 to 6400
D
15. To convert radians to degrees:( 7.4-9 )
Multiply by 180/PI
Add 90, 180 or 270 depending on the quadrant
Multiply by 0.3048
Pick any number between 0 and 10
Convert both to mils first
A
16. To calculate the length of a line with 10 straight segments given by 11 coordinates:( 7.4-10 )
Plot the line on a map, and use the paper strip trick
Take the average of the x and y values
Calculate the length of the line from the first point to the last
Use Pythagoras' theorem on each segment individually, then add the lengths together
Use Pythagoras' theorem on each segment individually, then multiply the lengths together
D
17. Pacing can be used to:( 7.5-2 )
Estimate direction
Reach the end of a long distance race
Measure distances directly from maps
Precisely measure distances in the field
Estimate distances in the field
E
18. Distances on the ground can be measured with:( 7.5-1 )
Pacing
A tape
A surveyors wheel
A chain
All of the above
E
19. To follow a bearing to a target in the field:( 7.5-3 )
Use a compass or map to select a target on the right bearing
Calculate how many paces to take
Carefully count down the paces
Walk around obstacles, using side-steps out and then back when you are around the obstacle
All of the above
E
20. A method used in surveying that reads values from a pole where two horizontal cross hairs fall on the scale is called:( 7.5-7 )
Meters and bounds
Leaps and bounds
Gunter's Chaining
Stadia
Electronic distance measurement
D
21. To measure map distances directly off the map, use:( 7.0-1 )
A map wheel
The paper strip trick
Calculate from coordinates
Use the TerraGo toolbar
Any of these
E
22. With which of these can you determine south, given a sunny day?( 7.6-3 )
Observing Polaris
Using an analog watch
A strip of paper
A slice of pizza
Noticing which side the bark grows on trees
B
23. The bearing N25W uses which measure of direction?( 7.7-7 )
Azimuths
Clock face
Compass points
Common bearings
Mils
D
24. The bearing 325 degrees uses which measure of direction?( 7.7-3 )
Azimuths
Clock face
Compass points
Common bearings
Mils
A
25. We need to account for magnetic declination because:( 7.9-2 )
It changes over time
It changes depending on where you are
It can vary both east or west of True North
It can be accounted for on a compass
All of the above
E
In cartography, map scale is expressed as:( 9.1-2 )
townships and ranges
the coordinate system
the projection
the representative fraction
all of the above
D
2. The human eye can resolve objects that are about how big?:( 9.1-2 )
0.01mm
0.1mm
1mm
1m
10m
B
3. The limits of visibility mean that at about 25dpi, map features suffer:( 9.1-4 )
generalization
projection distortion
drop in
wipe out
drop out
E
4. When we zoom in on a map in a computer window:( 9.1-10 )
the map extent increases and the amount of detail shown decreases
the map extent decreases and the amount of detail shown decreases
the map extent increases and the amount of detail shown increases
the map extent decreases and the amount of detail shown increases
all of the above
D
5. Many online mapping programs deal with zooming by:( 9.1-10 )
ignoring it
applying selection, simplification, combination and displacement in real time while the map is drawn
having precomputed ranges over which a particular generalized map is displayed
using supercomputers
sending requests to Google Maps
C
6. As we get close to the limits of zooming in we see:( 9.1-15 )
fewer features
less extent
fewer labeled features
smoother features
all of the above
E
7. Some standard map scales are:( 9.2-2 )
1:400 000 000 and 1:1 250
1:40 000 000 and 1:5 000
1: 4 000 000 and 1:10 000
1:400 000 and 1:20 000
1:100 000 and 1:24 000
E
8. Countries such as Mexico and Canada and the US Department of Defense use what standard scale maps:( 9.2-2 )
1:1 250
1:50 000
1:10 000
1:20 000
1:24 000
B
9. The four types of map generalization covered in this module are:( 9.3-2 )
selection, simplification, combination and displacement
selection, elimination, duplication and dispersal
selection, warping, distortion and projection
selection, identification, specification and anticipation
selection, qualification, quality control and implementation
A
10. Selection generalizes a map by:( 9.3.1-3 )
a factor of two
one zoom level
changing the map extent
for each feature type, deciding which features are worthy of appearing on the map
eliminating all of the labels
D
11. Some elements of selection are:( 9.3.1-3 )
pruning stream and road networks
selecting only cities above a certain population to display
eliminating crowding
applying elimination rules
all of the above
E
12. The problem of uniform labeling over space versus using a population criterion for labels was illustrated with a:( 9.3.1-4 )
CIA map of China
USGS map of Ohio
National Geographic map of Turkey
CIA map of Russia
CIA map of the former Soviet Union
D
13. What map generalization process reduces the number of points used to represent lines and areas?:( 9.3.2-2 )
Selection
Simplification
Combination
Displacement
Dispersal
B
14. An impact of simplification is that as the map scale gets less detailed:( 9.3.2-2 )
the cartographer gets more relaxed
more features get eliminated
features become joined together
curves get smoother and wiggles disappear
features have to be deliberately moved apart
D
15. The overlay of the coastline and some streams on maps of Point Clear, Alabama at two scales was used to show:( 9.3.2-7 )
Selection
Simplification
Combination
Displacement
Dispersal
B
16. When features of the same type, such as islands, are merged together and some eliminated we call this:( 9.3.3-2 )
Selection
Simplification
Combination
Displacement
Duplication
C
17. The island of Niihau, Hawaii is shown as one island, if at all on maps. Actually it has how many surrounding islands?:( 9.3.3-3 )
None
3
30
300
3 000
B
18. What happens to the islands in the northern end of Chelsea Lake, Wisonsin as you go from the 1:24 000 to 1:100 000 maps?( 9.3.3-5 )
They all sink
They each turn into 2 new islands
They are combined into a single island
They dissolve into clouds of mosquitos
All of the above
C
19. Moving features apart to make the map more clear, or to allow room for labels is called?:( 9.3.4-2 )
Selection
Simplification
Combination
Displacement
Qualification
D
20. A problem with displacement is:( 9.3.4-2 )
it makes the map harder to read
it can alter the map scale
it leads to overlapping features and labels
it slightly rotates the map
it makes cartometry inaccurate
E
21. The shortest distance between Chelsea Lake and Little Chelsea Lake Wisconsin increases by how much as you go from maps at 1:24 000 to 1:250 000:( 9.3.4-4 )
29.1 to 411.77m, an error over 1.4 times too large
29.1 to 411.77m, an error over 14 times too large
29.1 to 411.77m, an error over 140 times too large
29.1 to 411.77m, an error over 1400 times too large
What increase?
B
22. Online mapping systems generalize to many levels, and show the map at the window size and zoom level that is appropriate. This means that at particular map scales during zooming:( 9.4-2 )
the map changes projections
the number of features, labels, and line smoothness "jumps"
the window size and zoom level stay constant
all features become displaced
qualification and dispersal erase the entire map
B
23. When a detailed map is generalized to create a map at a less detailed scale, unless retained, the generalized map detail is:( 9.4-2 )
more costly
created
lost forever
less costly
more accurate
C
24. The four processes of map generalization:( 9.4-3 )
never happen together
only apply in Wisconsin
are selection, qualification, quality control and implementation
do not impact online maps
can happen together
E
25. A lesson from this module concerning cartometry is:( 9.4-1 )
Don't give up your day job
If only cartographers could do cartometry, all errors could be eliminated
Friends don't let friends measure maps inaccurately
Cartographers rule the map
Map measurement error is a function of how much generalization has been applied to a map
E
1. Prior to GNSS, observations of what were used for positioning?( 10.1-2 )
Polaris
the moon
the sun
shadows
all of the above
E
2. Using direct environmental observation, how accurately is it possible to determine latitude and longitude?( 10.1-2 )
To one degree (111km)
Half a degree (55km)
A quarter of a degree (27km)
A sixteenth of a degree (7km)
A minute (1.8km)
B
3. A list of places ordered alphabetically and including their latitudes and longitudes is a:( 10.1-3 )
Harrison
Lunar Distance
Maskelyne
GNSS
Gazetteer
E
4. Two things used at sea that drastically improved accuracy in positioning in the late 1700s were:( 10.1-4 )
the lunar distance method and the marine chronometer
calculus and analytical geometry
The time clock and the radio
The moons of jupiter and the telescope
Trilateration and GPS
A
5. Taking a bearing with a compass, then tracing its back bearing on a map from the same feature is called:( 10.2-3 )
Intersection
Compass
Declination
Resection
Inspection
D
6. Taking multiple bearings with a compass, then tracing their back bearings from their features on the map to the point where they all come together is called:( 10.2-4 )
Intersection
Compass
Declination
Resection
Inspection
A
7. Which trick is useful in inspection?( 10.2-5 )
aligning the map
using features and visibility
locating unique place combinations
using names and signs
all of the above
E
8. The bearing to a tower is Azimuth 20 degrees. What is the back bearing in degrees?( 10.2-3 )
20
160
200
360
120
C
9. What is a GNSS?( 10.3-2 )
The Russian version of GPS
System based on space vehicles and receivers as aids to positioning
The Greenland Navigational Science Society
An Indian satellite
The cartographic equivalent of the Nobel prize
B
10. Which of these is not a GNSS?( 10.3-2 )
BeiDou
GPS
Galileo
Baidu
GLONASS
D
11. Which GNSS was the first to be fully operational in 1994?( 10.3-8 )
GLONASS
GPS
Galileo
GeoPOS
The Chinese Compass system
B
12. Planned to be operational in 2014 with 30 satellites, operated by the Europeans is:( 10.3-7 )
BeiDou
GPS
Galileo
IRNSS
GLONASS
C
13. How many GPS satellites, at minimum, are visible above an unobstructed horizon at any given time:( 10.3-8 )
2
4
6
8
9
C
14. The GPS control system is in what US state?( 10.3-11 )
California
Mississippi
Pennsylvania
Colorado
Hawaii
D
15. GPS makes use of:( 10.3-8 )
Water, Fire and Air
Radio, Wind and the Ionosphere
Atomic clocks, microwave and trilateration
Polaris, sextants and calculators
The telephone time signal
C
16. GPS works:( 10.4-2 )
At night
During rain
At high latitudes
During sandstorms
At all of these
E
17. GPS does not work well:( 10.4-10 )
deep under water
inside buildings
in forests
in urban canyons
in any of these places
E
18. Differential correction for GPS is based on what principle?( 10.5-6 )
Errors on a roving receiver will be less than on a static receiver
Errors on a static receiver can be subtracted from the reading on a roving receiver
Errors on a static receiver can be added to the reading on a roving receiver
Errors on a static receiver will be different from a roving receiver
All of the errors cancel out in the end
B
19. The accuracies of geodetic grade, mapping grade, and recreational grade GPS receivers in meters, respectively, are:( 10.4-4 )
About 0.001, 0.5-2, and 5-20
About 0.1, 2-10, and 60-120
About 1, 15-30, and 100-200
About 1, 2, and 10
About 100, 200, and 1000
A
20. The error in GPS attributable to the geometry of the overhead satellites when taking a position is called:( 10.4-7 )
DOP
GLO
DEM
PDQ
BBOP
A
21. Multipath error in GPS is caused by:( 10.4-8 )
trees
branching streets
the ionosphere
signals bouncing off of solid objects before reaching the receiver
clock noise
D
22. HDOP, PDOP, GDOP and TDOP are measures of GPS:( 10.4-7 )
easting
northing
accuracy
position
none of these
C
23. A way to improve GPS accuracy is to use:( 10.5-1 )
WAAS
Differential correction
Post processing
Carrier phase tracking
all of the above
E
24. The system operated by the National Geodetic Survey that uses base stations to improve GPS accuracy for the National Spatial Reference System is called:( 10.5-9 )
GEOSAT
VDOP
CORS
COPR
GPS
C
25. Location based services are systems that:( 10.6-2 )
send you advertisements depending on what else you have purchased
use wireless mobile devices, the web, and positioning technology to provide access to applications and services depending on geographic location
are based on space vehicles and receivers as aids to positioning
will apply carrier phase GPS corrections for a fee
take advantage of your web browser to post advertisements on your screen
B
1. Which of these can be used as an aid to navigation?( 11.0-1 )
a map
a compass
a chart
a GPS receiver
all of these
E
2. A prudent navigator does which of the following:( 11.1-2 )
Always takes plenty of water
Stays within sight of land
Follows a great circle at all times
Uses multiple means of navigation with backup navigation aids
Avoids left turns against traffic
D
3. Navigating on foot across country, the simplest navigation aids are:( 11.1-2 )
a map and a compass
a sextant and a set of mathematical tables
radar and RDF
an altimeter and an air speed indicator
a good pair of boots and a hat
A
4. The most inexpensive compass suitable for hiking is:( 11.1-3 )
a dry compass
a gyrocompass
a magnetometer
a liquid filled magnetic compass
an iPhone
D
5. The three norths are:( 11.1-5 )
Geodetic, parallel and meridional
Magnetic, grid and true
Magnetic, geodetic and false
Magnetic, aspect and true
A comedy act in Reno, NV
B
6. A location in a UTM zone has an easting of 500 000mE. What is true on this meridian?( 11.1-6 )
Scale is equal east-west and north-south
Grid north is east of true north
Grid north is the same as true north
Grid north is west of true north
Grid north is the same as magnetic north
C
7. A location in a UTM zone has an easting of 600 000mE. What is always true?( 11.1-6 )
grid north is east of true north
grid north is equal to true north
grid north is west of true north
grid north is east of magnetic north
grid north is west of magnetic north
A
8. To convert true bearings to magnetic bearings, recall which rhyme?( 11.1-8 )
east is best so add, west is worse so subtract
east is least so subtract, west is best so add
true is new, so add the west
subtract the east from the west and take the rest
east, west, magnetic is best
B
9. A true (map) bearing is read as 45 degrees, where the magnetic declination is 14E. What is the corresponding magnetic bearing in degrees?( 11.1-9 )
14
31
45
59
0
B
10. Many compasses can compensate for declination, that is the scale reads true or grid north, if you( 11.1-11 )
Adjust a screw which turns the baseplate
Always turn your map 30 degrees right
Use grads and meters
Use a gyrocompass
Hit the compass with a hammer to deactivate the magnets
A
11. The line that follows the shortest path connecting the origin and destination over a long distance is:( 11.2-2 )
the semi-minor ellipse axis
the semi-major ellipse axis
a great circle
a small circle
a parallel
C
12. Which is true of a great circle when going from A to B?( 11.2-4 )
Every crossing angle for a meridian is different, bearing changes constantly
Conformal projections show direction correctly only at an immediate position, so do not always show A to B as a straight line
Mercator's projection first to allow great circle approximation by legs
Following this path is the shortest distance on a globe
All of the above
E
13. On a conformal gnomic projection, the great circle route between New York's JFK airport and London's Heathrow is:( 11.2-5 )
A circle
An ellipse
A series of straight line segments
A straight line
A complex curve
D
14. Approximating the great circle route between New York's JFK airport and London's Heathrow with three segments of constant bearing is how much further in distance?( 11.2-6 )
3.14159%
2.0%
0.74%
1.14%
They are the same distance
C
15. Map orientation by inspection was illustrated using the USGS topographic map at 1:24,000 of:( 11.2-7 )
Occidens, Missouri
Levant, Georgia
Scirocco, Pennsylvaia
Compass, Alaska
Orient, South Dakota
E
16. Route planning using dead reckoning means using the map to precompute:( 11.3-2 )
the bearings of segments
the magnetic declination
the lengths and bearings of legs
the lengths and bearings of great circles
the grid north
C
17. Naismith's rule allows you to calculate:( 11.3-4 )
the speed of travel when sailing
the speed of travel when flying
the speed of travel when driving
the speed of travel when walking
the heights of Scottish mountains
D
18. The average speed of walking on a hard level surface, such as a road, when walking and running in minutes per kilometer is:( 11.3-5 )
36 and 24
24 and 12
24 and 6
9 and 6
6 and 2
D
19. The contours on the Badwater, California USGS topographic map were negative because:( 11.3-8 )
the map was a first draft
of sea level rise
the map used the latest Geoid
the elevations are below sea level, or at least the datum
the continent is sinking
D
20. Using the travel speed by land type table and Naismith's rule, we can:( 11.3-4 )
estimate the elevation at the start and end of a hike
follow a great circle
navigate the route
plan the route
estimate the travel time enroute
E
21. Navigation and route planning may depend on:( 11.4-2 )
how many legs to use in navigation
minimizing the travel distance
whether the navigator wants to meet multiple goals
avoiding particular routes or places
all of these
E
22. The name used for maps for ocean and air navigation is:( 11.5-2 )
maplet
chart
nos
low altitude
carta
B
23. Federal agencies responsible for paper, digital and online marine mapping are:( 11.5-2 )
USGS and DOD
FRGS and Falconview
NOS and NGA
NOAA and FAA
NOAA and Census Bureau
C
24. Most large and even small ocean vessels now use:( 11.5-4 )
iPhone and the Internet
VFR and RDF
CORS and Radar
solar powered digital maps
GPS and digital chart systems
E
25. Of the six basic instruments found in almost all light aircraft, which give navigational information?( 11.6-11 )
Compass, air speed indicator, altimeter
Compass, vertical speed incicator, artificial horizon
Fuel gague, clock and turn coordinator
Roll, pitch and yaw
Paper map, pilots hands, and wing mirror
A
1. A geobrowser is an aid to navigation and route finding for:( 12.2-2 )
the Amazon basin
advanced mathematics
the world wide web
Mars
highways
C
2. What is "An information or entertainment service accessible through portable devices via a mobile network that is capable of making use of the geographical position of the device"?( 12.1-2 )
the world wide web
Google Maps
Google Earth
NASA Worldwind
A Location Based Service
E
3. An example of a "pull" use of LBS would be:( 12.1-3 )
the tug-of-war at the London olympics
finding and navigating our way to a flower shop
a flower shop advertizing a daily special to nearby customers
selecting the most powerful wireless signal
all of the above
B
4. Social networking web sites that use geographical location include:( 12.1-6 )
Facebook
Twitter
Google Latitude
Friendster
all of these and more
E
5. What is "a search engine for the world wide web that conducts searches based on some characteristic of location"?:( 12.2-2 )
catalhoyuk
a geocacher
a location based service
a geobrowser
AskJeeves
D
6. A geobrowser that allows you to search and download any of the USGS's map information is:( 12.2-3 )
googleGS
the Geographic Names Information System
The National Map Viewer
possible within 50 years
the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
C
7. Using a geobrowser to get the turn by turn directions from A to B uses what function(s)?:( 12.2-5 )
zoom
pan
place name search
routing
all of the above
E
8. How far is it by road from Notown, Vermont to Nowhere, Oklahoma?( 12.2-6 )
2736km
7263km
36km
273km
you can't get there from here
A
9. Zillow.com is an LBS relating to:( 12.2-7 )
cupcakes
real estate
flowers
social networking
anti-social networking
B
10. Being able to zoom anywhere on earth and see the location on a map of image view is called:( 12.2-9 )
virtually crazy
virtual reality
virtual travel
virtual street viewing
a virtue
C
11. GeoHack is a service that:( 12.2-9 )
for any location, integrates all the web mapping services
downloads viruses onto your computer
gives the latitude and longitude for places by state
allows viewing of web cams
none of the above
A
12. Placing a coordinate on a photograph, often done automatically by a digital camera is called:( 12.2-11 )
illegal
fracking
tagging
geotagging
geobrowsing
D
13. What streams spatially relevant geo-information from a static or mobile device to the web for further integration?( 12.3-2 )
A river
Location based services
A geobrowser
A geosensor
Intelligent agriculture
14. The US Fish and Wildlife service tracking of shearwaters in the Gulf of Maine is an example of:( 12.3-5 )
intelligent farming
geosensing
geobrowsing
marine navigation
cruelty to animals
D
15. Embedded inertial coils in the tarmac on streets allows automated traffic light switching and:( 12.3-6 )
the issuing of speeding tickets over the web
the sensing of overweight trucks
the geosensing of traffic flow
automatically slows down cars
improves tire performance
B
16. What is "a video camera that inputs to a computer connected to the Internet, so that its images can be seen by Internet users"?:( 12.2-14 )
the Google car
a digital camera
Google streetview
a geobrowser
a webcam
E
17. What would allow you to recognize the Google street view car?:( 12.3-9 )
it is a bright red Ferrari
it can fly
it has cameras pointed out of every window
it has a post on the roof with multidirectional cameras
it has seven wheels
D
18. What has the potential to reduce animal and plant disease, minimize application of water and fertilizer, and optimally harvest and plant:( 12.4-2 )
location based services
geobrowsers
Google
global warming
precision agriculture
E
19. Precision or intelligent agriculture uses:( 12.4-2 )
GPS
geosensors
the wireless web
geotags
all of the above
E
20. What mapping service is offered by the Department of Agriculture's National Resource Conservation service?:( 12.4-4 )
twitter feeds
Openstreetmap.org
the Web Soil Survey
Seedsbymail.gov
the National Map Viewer
C
21. What is user-generated geospatial content contributed by its producers to a web based collective?( 12.5-2 )
geocaching
Dijkstra's algorithm
free computer programs
volunteered geographic information
web content
D
22. Two examples of VGI given in this module are:( 12.5-3 )
maplet and Tides
Google streetview and Google maps
Worldwind and Google Earth
GeoPDF and NGA
soundmap and openstreetmap.org
E
23. What is an example of a geoenabled, location based sport?:( 12.5-6 )
baseball
track and field
the Web Soil Survey
geocaching
channel surfing
D
24. What is a list of placenames, with their coordinates:( 12.6-2 )
a phone directory
a gazetteer
a thesaurus
a GeoHack
a WorldWind
b
25. Responsibility for place names in the United States lies with the:( 12.6-2 )
President
Representatives Betty Sutton and Tim Ryan of Ohio
US Board on Geographic Names
National Geospatial Intelligence Agency
VGI
C
1. Terrain depiction methods for maps can be absolute, relative or both. Which is most true?( 13.3-1 )
absolute height methods show heights above a datum
absolute height methods are more usueful in cartometry
relative height method show the pattern and structure of the terrain
relative height methods cannot show heights at all locations
all of the above
E
2. Some methods used historically for topographic depiction did not include:( 13.0-1 )
pictorial representation
wiggly worms
contours
NASA Worldwind
hachures
d
3. A terrain display method used on maps that uses lines following the run of slopes downhill is:( 13.1-7 )
anaglyphs
petroglyphs
hachures
Tanaka shading
Imhof shading
c
4. Jed Hotchkiss's sketch map of the Civil War battlefield at Cedar Creek in 1864 showed Three Top Mountain using:( 13.1-8 )
contours
wiggly worms
straight lines
hill shading
hachures
e...
5. Until recently, what USGS map feature's symbol still used hachures:( 13.1-10 )
mine shafts
mine tailings
railroads
older, more eroded mountains
swamps
b...
6. What is probably the oldest isoline map, the first to use contour mapping, was made in 1700 by Edmund Halley. The lines it shows are lines of equal:( 13.1-11 )
magnetic compass declination
speed of earth rotation
terrain height
variation from the datum
population
a...
7. The 1949 map of Devil's tower, Wyoming used which three terrain depiction methods?:( 13.3-3 )
panoramic views, air pressure and temperature
Tanaka shading, spot heights and wiggly worms
spot heights, relief shading and contours
relief shading, Imhof shading and Tanaka shading
index contours, bench marks and roads
c...
8. Shaded relief methods depend heavily on:( 13.3-5 )
the aspect and zenith angle of the illumination
the slope and height of the terrain
the maximum height minus the minimum
the amount of stereo used
where the observer stands on the terrain
a...
9. Hypsometric coloring:( 13.3-6 )
shades the terrain on the map
requires the use of transparency
fills the areas between successive contours with graded color sequences
only works in the northern hemisphere
only works in the oceans
c...
10. Which is true?:( 13.3-7 )
hypsometric colors often go from green to red, while bathymetry is shaded with deepening blues
hypsometric colors often go from brown to white, while bathymetry is shaded with deepening greys
hypsometric colors often go from white to purple, while bathymetry is shaded with deepening magentas
hypsometric colors often go from green to black, while bathymetry is shaded with deepening greens
there are no standard colors for hypsometry and bathymetry
a...
11. Tanaka shading:( 13.3-8 )
has been called the inclined contour method
works on both topography and bathymetry
was devised by Japanese cartographer Kitiro Tanaka in the 1920s
uses white to grey, but only along contour lines
all of the above
e...
12. Imhof shading involves:( 13.3-9 )
using Adobe Photoshop
adjusting regular hill shading to enhance terrain features such as ridges and peaks
anaglyphic enhancement
adding photographic images
head mounted virtual displays
b...
13. Terrain inversion, differential of darkness/contrast, and lack of absolute heights are true of which terrain depiction method?:( 13.3-10 )
wiggly worms
hill shading
anaglyphs
spot heights
contours
b...
14. The generic term for lines joining points of equal values, of which a contour is a specific example is:( 13.4-2 )
isobar
isoglyph
isogone
isobath
isoline
e...
15. Contour lines on topographic maps are usually show in:( 13.4-2 )
red
black
white
grey
brown
e...
16. What are some of the conventions associated with contours?:( 13.4-3 )
the contour interval is a round number
only reference contours are labeled
enclosed depressions have contours with hatch lines pointing downslope
when contour lines are too close together, a carrying contour is used
all of the above
e...
17. The contour interval is 10m, and the index contour is 100m. What contour is the second one crossed going uphill after leaving the index contour?:( 13.4-6 )
80m
90m
100m
110m
120m
e...
18. A contour added usually at half the contour interval to show detail in low relief areas is called :( 13.4-3 )
an index contour
an enclosed depression
another contour
a supplemental contour
a bonus contour
d...
19. Generally speaking, the more contours on a map with a given contour interval:( 13.4-10 )
the more the azimuth
the less the slope
the more the slope
the higher the elevation
the lower the elevation
e...
20. Areas that have to be build up in height to carry a railroad or road are called:( 13.4-9 )
landslides
cut
emigrants
gaps
fill
e...
21. Slope is( 13.4-10 )
the top over the bottom
the relief
the rise over the run
the azimuth and the zenith
the height
b...
22. An advantage of using a virtual model of terrain is:( 13.6-2 )
You can get a better view of the relief
You can use hypsometry
You can use relief shading
It supports stereo viewing
It is easier than mapping
d...
23. A stereo view that must be viewed with red and blue glasses is called:( 13.6-3 )
terrain fly-by
anaglyphic stereo
animation
contour intervals
X3D
b...
24. A fly-through animation involves:( 13.6-4 )
a static observer and a static frame
a static observer and a moving frame
a moving observer and a static frame
a moving observer and a moving frame
using a headset
c...
25. To see terrain animations on the world wide web requires:( 13.6-4 )
An ordinary web browser
A mac
Windows explorer
A 3D workstation
Hours of time
a...
1. The feature model divides a map's contents into:( 8.1-1 )
patches, landscapes and metrics
features, classes and objects
points, lines and areas
lakes, streams and glaciers
planimeters
c
2. Cartometry deals with:( 8.1-3 )
broken compasses
magnetic declination
townships and ranges
measuring features on the ground
measuring features on maps
e
3. Examples of point, line and area features are:( 8.2-1 )
lakes, reservoirs and ponds
springs, streams and lakes
roads, rivers and canals
coastlines, beaches and bluffs
railroads, pipelines and transmission lines
b
4. The length of a line can be measured on a map with:( 8.2-11 )
a planimeter
Gunter's chain
stadia rods
the TerraGo toolbar
cell counting
d
5. The formula to calculate the length of a line works on:( 8.2-5 )
Apple computers only
the latitudes of the points making up the line
the eastings and northings of the end points of the line
equivalent projections only
the coordinates of the points making up the line
e
6. The measured length of a line is impacted by:( 8.2-1 )
how well the end points are located
how many points are used to represent the line
how straight or wiggly the line is
the scale of the map
all of the above
e
7. Road distances in the United States are measured with reference to:( 8.2-15 )
the Washington meridian
the zero mile marker in Washington DC
Meades ranch in Kansas
(0, 0)
the price of gas
b
8. Road symbols on maps are usually:( 8.2-2 )
little shields
unmarked
brown
hierarchical by road type
diamond-shaped
d
9. The road that goes from the visitor center to the summit of Capulin mountain in New Mexico is shaped like:( 8.2-6 )
an ellipse
a circle
a spiral
a star
a cowboy hat
c
10. An example of a feature that has changed its length over three different mappings is:( 8.2-10 )
a soccer field
the Washington monument
the Colorado state capitol
the Madrid bar
the Steinhaus longimeter
d
11. What is true of the Madrid loop?( 8.2-10 )
It is in Kentucky, but is surrounded by Missouri
It was close to the center of a massiv earthquake in 1812
It is on the Mississippi River
It is where the course of the river was changed by the 1812 earthquake
All of the above
e
12. A distance table gives:( 8.2-14 )
the areas of each state
a matrix of distances between places
the height of each state capitol building
the formula for distance
all of the above
b
13. A distance table only shows half of the distance matrix because:( 8.2-14 )
it saves printing cost
return trips are unnecessary
distances from A to B are assumed to be equal to B to A
federal law prevents showing the whole matrix
all of the above
c
14. If a point is at (1,1) in an arbitrary coordinate system using meters, and another point is at (2,2). The distance between them is:( 8.2-5 )
1m
2m
1.414m
2.828m
10 000 000m
c
15. The formula that calculates the length of a line with n points with their coordinates, and n - 1 segments:( 8.2-5 )
uses the Pythagorean theorem for each segment, then multiplies the lengths
uses the Pythagorean theorem for each segment, then divides the lengths
uses the Pythagorean theorem for each segment, then subtracts the lengths
uses the Pythagorean theorem for each segment, then adds the lengths
uses reverse Polish notation
d
16. Which type of area feature is clearly defined and can be mapped unambiguously:( 8.3-2 )
a marsh
the Mid-West
an oil field
a sand bar
a Section within a Township
e
17. Which type of area feature is usually vaguely defined when mapped:( 8.3-2 )
a road
swamps
fields in the Township and Range system
Military bases
the coastline
b
18. Which method can be used for measuring area:( 8.3-1 )
cell counting
cell intersection counting
planimeter
coordinates and a formula
all of the above
e
19. When using cell counting:( 8.3-7 )
You count the full cells, add half the partial cells and multiple by the cell area
You add the full and the partial cells and multiply by the cell area
You multiply the full cells by the cell area
You count the number of cell intersections inside the area, then multiply by the cell area
You count the edge cells, and multiply by the cell area
a
20. A forest zone was measured for area using cell counting from a map and then an image. Which is probably true?:( 8.3-8 )
the map gave a larger area than the image
the map and the image gave exactly the same area
the image gave a larger area than the map
the number of cells was incorrect
the number of cell intersections was incorrect
c
21. A digital planimeter is a device for measuring what from maps:( 8.3-12 )
the scale
positions
distances
areas
text
d
22. The best way to get the area of the 50 United States is to:( 8.3-1 )
Call 1-800-ASK-MAPS
On a conformal projection, add the areas of the 50 states computed by formula
Trace the outline of the coast from the USA Topo maps
Use cell counting
Consult the CIA world fact book
e
23. Landscape metrics measure the values of:( 8.4-2 )
patches, feature classes and whole landscapes
points, lines and areas
coordinates
lengths and areas
Fragstats
a
24. What landscape metric best described the complexity of the boundaries of the 50 states?:( 8.4-3 )
Area
Perimeter
Perimeter squared
A shape index
The east-west extent
d
25. What might you expect of a mapped area covered in hills that were once sand dunes?( 8.8-1 )
The roads would all be straight
Land partitioning would use metes and bounds
There would be many lakes
The hills would have similar directional orientation
The area would be unsettled
d
1. Which of the following can destroy mountains?( 15.1-3 )
volcanoes
plate tectonics
magnetism
oceans
all of the above
d
2. A Warntz Network is:( 15.2-2 )
constructed using soil maps
a transportation network of rail lines
a social network of geomorphologists who study a particular landform
a subterranean network of fault lines
a surface network connnecting significant landform elements
e
3. Which of the following are commonly represented in a Warntz Network?( 15.2-2 )
stream channels, pits, and saddle points
slope, elevation, and concavity
plate boundaries, folding and faulting
bridges, tunnels, and rail lines
all of the above
a
4. The study of how the earth's form changes and evolves is the primary focus of:( 15.1-2 )
cartometry
geomorphology
cartography
archaeology
drumlins
b
5. Which of the following is true about landscapes? ( 15.1-0 )
Maps show evidence of them.
They can be shaped by wind, water, and gravity.
They are sets of characteristic landforms assembled together in geographic space.
Interpreting them involves an understanding of land forms and processes.
All of the above
e
6. Landscape [blank] are typically visible as terrain, while landscape [blank] shape the surface of the earth.( 15.1-2 )
forces...networks
forms...processes
processes...forms
contours...boundaries
designs...architects
b
7. Examples of landscape properties include:( 15.2-4 )
stream density
number of peaks
length of ridgelines
number of enclosed depressions
all of the above
e
8. Distinct landforms recognizable on the landscape are called:( 15.3-2 )
Warntz Networks
metes and bounds
terrain skeletons
latitude and longitude
surface features
e
9. Surface features created underneath moving ice include:( 15.3-10 )
alluvial fans
sinkholes
dunes
drumlins
all of the above
d
10. Forces that create, destroy and move rock through the lithosphere are called:( 15.6-2 )
eskers
1st order processes
upwelling
lithographic forces
tectonics
e
11. Sinkholes often form:( 15.3-7 )
in areas of karst topography
as a result of folding
near mud flats
in association with ice flows
all of the above
a
12. A term describing the crescent shape of a sand dune is:( 15.3-8 )
cirque
depositional
lunar
barchan
karst
d
13. Cirques, nunataks, and aretes are features associated with which type of landscape? ( 15.4-8 )
glaciated
coastal
irrigated
morraine
alluvial
a
14. Deposition is a process responsible for the formation of:( 15.4-6 )
caves
mud flats
headlands
gremlins
none of the above
b
15. On USGS maps, glaciers are symbolized in:( 15.4-9 )
grey
purple
green
blue
black
d
16. Arthur Strahler is known for developing what?( 15.5-2 )
a common metric of landscape complexity
a stream order classification system
the levee
the chronometer
the modern-day study of tectonics
b
17. A stream near its [blank] is a level 1 stream; most rivers have orders [blank] or below.( 15.5-2 )
mid-course...3
outlet...12
outlet...6
source...6
source...12
e
18. Two streams, both of order 3, meet to form a single stream. This stream's order is:( 15.5-3 )
2
3
4
6
impossible to determine without additional information
d
19. Mid-level streams: ( 15.5-9 )
tend to meander more than streams near their source
generally lose elevation fast
frequently form oxbow lakes
often build up levees
all of the above
a
20. Alluvial fans are found:( 15.5-13 )
on a beach, near cliffs
at the base of headlands eroded by wave action
at the Beachville Alluvials baseball games
where streams pass from mountainous to flat terrain
inside eskers
d
21. Which of the following are associated with folding?( 15.6-8 )
strike-slip motion
transform faults
monoclines and anticlines
offset drainage channels
all of the above
c
22. Tectonic forces include:( 15.6-2 )
earthquakes
volcanoes
extrusions
orogenies
all of the above
e
23. Which of the following is true of the Deccan traps?( 15.6-11 )
They were formed by a single flow of tectonic material across the landscape.
They are found in India.
In ancient times, temples were carved out of them.
They are primarily comprised of basalt.
all of the above
e
24. Studying which of the following can help you read a landscape?( 15.7-3 )
the presence of man-made features
the height of a river
the orientation of roads and railroads
the composition and seasonal stage of vegetation
all of the above
e
25. Which of the following statements is false?( 15.0-1 )
Water can be involved in both erosion and deposition.
Glaciers rarely form on south-facing slopes.
At plate boundaries, convergent forces create new rock while divergent forces send rock back below the earth's surface.
Faulting and folding are examples of tectonic processes.
A summit is the highest elevation within a vicinity.
c
1. Which of the following have contributed error to height measurements throughout history?( 16.1-2 )
imprecise geodetic models
imprecise measurement methods
atmospheric conditions
local gravity variation
all of the above
e
2. What method was first used to establish accurate height measurements?( 16.1-2 )
photogrammetry
triangulation
RADAR
LiDAR
cartometry
b
3. A portable device used in surveying that can hold paper horizontal and be repositioned to align with lines of sight is a:( 16.2-2 )
level
stadia rod
sextant
alidade
plane table
e
4. A telescopic alidade can be used:( 16.2-1 )
to measure vertical angles
to spot views to different locations
with a plane table
in triangulation
all of the above
e
5. Triangulation is:( 16.2.2-2 )
an innovation devised in the 19th century
used in interpolation
a method for determining area
a mapping method
all of the above
d
6. A clinometer is used to measure what?( 16.2.2-4 )
altitude
vertical angles
atmospheric pressure
distance
radioactivity
b
7. The Cassini family was responsible for:( 16.2.2-5 )
the first major triangulation mapping
the first Coast and Geodetic Survey triangulation mapping in the US
the first survey of Mount Everest
inventing the clinometer
inventing the plane table
a
8. The first benchmark for mapping heights in the US was called:( 16.2.2-6 )
"Cassini"
"Buttermilk"
"Snell"
"Milktoast"
"Hassler"
b
9. Hassler's triangulation survey of 1807 encompassed which of the following locations?( 16.2.2-7 )
San Francisco
Mount Everest
Long Island
Denver
Chicago
c
10. Mapping using triangulation uses:( 16.2.2-8 )
multiple stations on the landscape, between which there are clear lines of sight
precise measurements of vertical and horizontal angles between stations
measurement instruments such as the theodolite, a telescope with vertical and horizontal angle scales
inclusion of a base line of known length in the network of resulting triangles
all of the above
e
11. A surveying procedure in which heights at one position are used to determine heights at another by creating a line of sight along the level plane is called:( 16.2.2-11 )
centuriation
gerrymandering
sighting
triangulation
leveling
e
12. During World War I, aerial photography was used to:( 16.3-2 )
generate 3D terrain models
detect infrared signals
track carrier pigeons
map trenches
all of the above
d
13. The practice of determining the geometric properties of objects from photographic images is called:( 16.3-5 )
aerial photography
spectometry
photogrammetry
resection
photogeometry
c
14. The term nadir describes:( 16.3-5 )
an aerial view looking straight down
an aerial view looking towards the horizon
a view from the ground looking straight up
a view from the ground looking towards the horizon
a politician who repeatedly runs for President
a
15. Which of the following is true of photogrammetry for mapping?( 16.3-5 )
A geometric model of the camera, its lenses and its field of view are necessary.
The height above ground of the aircraft carrying the camera must be known.
Photographs taken at nadir are desirable.
It is almost as old as photography.
all of the above
e
16. Rubber sheeting is used:( 16.3-7 )
in cartometry to measure the length of linear features on maps
with a plane table and alidade, to determine the distance between two locations
to determine the amount of radial displacement on an aerial photograph
to warp an aerial photograph into the correct map geometry
by disreputable cartographers to deceive map readers
d
17. How many images are necessary for viewing in stereo?( 16.3-8 )
at least 1
at least 2
at least 3
at least 4
it depends on the distance between the camera and objects in the image
b
18. The Kelsh plotter and stereo workstation can be used to: ( 16.3-10 )
map heights
map distances
map point distributions
partition land
project maps
a
19. Which of the following statements is false?( 16.4-2 )
Prior to 1927, US mapping used different geodetic models.
Heights measured from NAD27 were measured with respect to the location of Meades Ranch.
NAD83, WGS84 and ITRF are all based on earth-centered datums.
The summit of Mt. Everest is the point on earth farthest from the earth's center.
The space era allowed measurement of the whole earth's magnetic field, which enabled earth-centered datums to be established.
d
20. Which of the following enables mapping of tiny (on the scale of milimeters) changes in height of terrain over time?( 16.5-4 )
interferometric synthetic aperature radara (IfSAR)
side-looking airborn radar (SLAR)
Shuttle Imaging Radar-C
aerial photographs
a clinometer
a
21. The SRTM was an effort to:( 16.5-5 )
map trenches during World War I.
measure small changes in terrain elevation in the Three Sisters volcano zone, Oregon.
collect terrain information over most of the earth.
create a digital map of the US coast, led by NOAA.
update FEMA's flood maps.
c
22. [Blank] is suitable for mapping large areas of terrain at medium resolution, while [blank] is suitable for mapping smaller areas at hight resolution.( 16.0-1 )
LiDAR...RADAR
RADAR...LiDar
plane table survey...levelling
photogrammetry...triangulation
rubber sheeting...dead reckoning
b
23. Which of the following statements about RADAR is false?( 16.5-2 )
It is an active remote sensing technique, using signals that bounce off the ground and are then sensed back at the instrument.
It passes through clouds, smoke, and vegetation.
It can be used day or night.
Polarized RADAR signals can be used.
It can be used to map underwater features.
e
24. Which of the following statements about LiDAR is false?( 16.6-2 )
Both airborne and terrestrial versions are used in mapping.
It is an active remote sensing technique, using pulses of laser light that bounce off the ground and are then sensed back at the instrument.
It is used in mapping, geophysics, construction, and archaeology.
It is generally less accurate than RADAR.
It uses a simultaneous GPS signal to process the data.
c
25. LiDAR can be used to map( 16.6-1 )
vegetation
buildings
coastlines
vertical cliff faces
all of the above
e
1. Topographic and world outline maps are examples of what type of cartography?( 17.1-2 )
dasymetric
thematic
reference
artistic
all of these
c
2. A map dedicated to showing the distribution of the pattern or distribution of a single variable is a:( 17.1-3 )
thematic map
topographic map
general purpose map
dasymetric map
choropleth map
a
3. Zero, one, and two data dimensions on a thematic map correspond to:( 17.1-3 )
legends, neat lines and text
nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio
highways, railroads and survey lines
points, lines and area features
isolines, hill shading and contours
d
4. Thematic maps often leave off what important cartographic features:( 17.1-3 )
projection
graticule
scale
north arrow
all of these
e
5. Stanley Smith Stevens (1906-1973) is best known in cartography for:( 17.2-1 )
The 1400+ page "Handbook of Experimental Psychology" (1951)
being the founding organizer of the Psychonomic Society
being the founder of Harvard's Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory
publishing a paper in Science in 1946 on the theory of levels of measurement
inventing the dasymetric map
d
6. Temperatures in Fahrenheit and Kelvin are examples of what two data levels?:( 17.2-1 )
nominal and ordinal
ordinal and interval
interval and ratio
nominal and interval
ordinal and ratio
c
7. Which geographic data value and its cartographic element is nominal only?:( 17.3-1 )
traffic flow along a road
population density within a county
a place name
rents shown on a prism map
none of the above
c
8. A map showing the major highways in the US as red lines is an example of what kind of map:( 17.3-5 )
area interval
line nominal
line interval
line ratio
area interval
b
9. Where is Zzyzx?:( 17.3-3 )
Croatia
Turkmenistan
Iran
India
California
e
10. What is critical to interpreting an area nominal map?( 17.3-6 )
a scale
the map title
having the map text in English
the legend
there is no such thing as an area nominal map
d
11. A map that shows US city populations classed by size and represented by four colored symbols is a:?( 17.4-2 )
nominal area map
ordinal point map
ordinal line map
ratio point map
dasymetric map
b
12. The hierarchical line symbols used to show roads on US topo maps are examples of what kind of data?:( 17.4-4 )
nominal
ordinal
interval
ratio
dasymetric
b
13. The specially encoded symbols used on a synoptic weather map are:( 17.6-2 )
point ratio
line ratio
point interval
point nominal
area ratio
a
14. Wind flow vectors that show direction and speed of wind flow are what kind of symbol?:( 17.6-3 )
point ratio
line ratio
area ratio
point interval
line interval
b
15. A choropleth map, which uses shading in zones is what kind of map?:( 17.6-4 )
dasymetric
area nominal
area ordinal
area interval
area ratio
e
16. What is true of discrete geographical data:( 17.7-2 )
it is based on features, e.g. a county
value is assumed even within the feature
it is suited to choropleth mapping
it often uses the unit of data collection or aggegation, such as a state
All of the above
e
17. Using additional data, such as land use, to enhance a choropleth map results in a:( 17.7-3 )
reference map
point nominal map
land use map
prism map
dasymetric map
e
18. On a dasymetric map, what is true:( 17.7-4 )
the surface is smooth
the values inside the areal units are assumed equal
adjacent areas need not have values in the next higher or lower class
all lines point north
declination is zero
c
19. Examples of geographic units for discrete data mapping are:( 17.7-2 )
cells, grid cells, and sections
points, lines and areas
nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio
census tracts, counties and states
daysmetric
d
20. What is true of continuous geographical data:( 17.7-5 )
it can be measured anywhere in geographic space
it forms a field
it forms a surface
it can be mapped by any of the terrain mapping methods, such as isolines
all of the above
e
21. Continuous data are often measured by taking:( 17.7-7 )
point samples
line samples
area samples
minimal samples
none of these
a
22. A popular form of continuous field map used on the web, for example for crime mapping, is the:( 17.7-8 )
flow map
heat map
temperature map
dasymetric map
choropleth map
b
23. A dasymetric map is part way between what two mapping types:( 17.7-3 )
nominal and interval
thematic and reference
black/white and color
continuous and discrete
dimension and scaling level
d
24. A map showing today's air temperature using colors between isolines of the 70s, 80s, 90s, etc shows what type of data?:( 17.7-5 )
continuous
discrete
nominal
reference
indiscrete
a
25. A map showing this week's unemployment rate by state as a shaded choropleth map shows what type of data:( 17.7-2 )
continuous
discrete
nominal
reference
indiscrete
b
1. Using cartometry, we can measure characteristics of:( 18.1-11 )
line features
patterns
distributions
shapes
all of the above
e
2. Distributions of which of the following can be quantified using maps?( 18.1-1 )
points
lines
areas
all of the above
d
3. Measurable properties of an area include:( 18.2-2 )
sinuosity
zero crossings
compactness
clustering
all of the above
c
4. Which of the following properties are desirable for a measure of shape?( 18.2-16 )
applicable to all shapes
independent of scale and orientation
dimensionless
intuitive
all of the above
e
5. The metric that is calculated by dividing the actual distance by the "as-the-crow-flies" distance is called:( 18.2-3 )
sinuosity
the Lee Sallee measure
compactness
great circleness
the Schumm elongation measure
a
6. A perfectly straight road would have [blank] zero crossings and a sinuosity value of [blank].( 18.2-3 )
0...0
0...1
1...0
1...1
-1...-1
b
7. Metrics of compactness include:( 18.2-7 )
the area-perimeter ratio
the Miller shape index
the Schumm elongation measure
the Lee Salee index
all of the above
e
8. The most compact shape possible is a:( 18.2-7 )
triangle
square
circle
five-pointed star
hexagon
c
9. A lake that is approximately square-shaped would have an area-perimeter ratio approaching( 18.2-10 )
0
0.25
0.28
0.5
1
b
10. Which of the following metrics compares the area of a feature to the area of a circle with the same perimeter?( 18.2-11 )
the area-perimeter ratio
the Miller shape index
the Schumm elogation measure
the Lee Salee index
the Olympic Ring index
b
11. Five lakes with different shapes are represented on a map. Which of the following lake shapes could produce a Schumm index value of 0.1?( 18.2-12 )
very long and skinny
oval-shaped
close to circular
rectangular
doughnut-shaped
a
12. To calculate a feature's Lee Sallee metric:( 18.2-14 )
you take the ratio of the feature's area to the square root of its perimeter
you calculate the diameter of a circle with the same area as the feature, then divide this by the length of the longest axis of the feature
you count the number of times the feature curves to the left and right
on top of the feature you overlay a circle with the same area, then take the ratio of the intersection area to the union area
you have to consider the distribution of its surrounding features
d
13. Which of the following measures would be appropriate for comparing the shapes of three different voting districts?( 18.2-7 )
the Miller index
sinuosity
quadrat analysis
nearest neighbor statistic
Yule's Q
a
14. A distribution with a repeating form is called:( 18.3-7 )
clustered
random
a pattern
a drumlin
distance decay
c
15. The maxim, "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related to each other" is known as:( 18.3-5 )
friction of distance
the Law of Geographic Distribution
Tober's First Law
distance decay
agglomeration
c
16. Within a city, which of the following would you expect to exhibit a clustered pattern?( 18.3-5 )
schools
police stations
fire houses
downtown business district
all of the above
e
17. A quadrat is:( 18.4-2 )
a cell within a grid, often used in spatial analyses
a measure of shape
a latitude and longitude grid that often appears on a map
a mathematical equation
a square
a
18. Which of the following is true of quadrat analysis?( 18.4-0 )
It is sensitive to the size and orientation of the quadrats.
It is a simple method of investigating and measuring distributions.
It uses point counts within a grid, or pattern of cells.
It compares expected with observed counts within quadrats.
all of the above
e
19. A distribution metric that compares the measured mean point separation to the expected mean point separation if the distribution were random is:( 18.5-2 )
the nearest neighbor statistic
compactness
Schumm elongation measure
the quadrat statistic
Yule's Q
a
20. You calculate the nearest neighbor statistic for two point distributions, A and B. Distribution A yields a value of 0.94, while distribution B yields 1.75. Which of the following is true?( 18.5.2-0 )
Points in A form an approximately square grid pattern, while points in B form an approximately hexagonal grid pattern.
Points in A are more randomly distributed than points in B.
Points in B are more randomly distributed than points in A.
Points in B are more clustered than points in A.
Distributions A and B would be indistinguishable.
b
21. Which of the following can be used to compare the level of correspondence between two distributions?( 18.6-4 )
the nearest neighbor statistic
Tobler's First Law
Yule's Q statistic
sinuosity
zero crossings
c
22. The fact that cartometry depends upon the size of the spatial units used for an analysis is known as:( 18.7-2 )
the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem
Tobler's First Law
the Cartometer's Paradox
Tissot's Indicatrix
the Confluence Conundrum
a
23. Which of the following values for Yule's Q describe two point patterns that have no apparent spatial association with each other?( 18.6-4 )
-1
0
1
2
It is impossible to tell.
b
24. Clownfish often live in association with sea anemones. Which of the following values for Yule's Q might you expect to when comparing the distribution of sea anemones and the distribution of clownfish?( 18.6-1 )
-0.868
0.019
0.751
1.880
none of the above
c
25. Which of the following statements is false?( 18.0-1 )
Yule's Q is sensitive to the scale at which the analysis is performed.
Geographical distributions often repeat themselves in space.
Many patterns and distributions are embedded in maps, at all different scales.
It is usually possible to re-create a shape when shape metrics, such as sinuosity or compactness, are known.
Distance decay is commonly observed in geographic distributions.
d
1. A system of lines or channels that cross or interconnect is a:( 19.1-3 )
planar graph
Facebook
network
diameter
all of the above
c
2. On maps showing networks:( 19.1-4 )
places or point features are represented as nodes
roads, rivers or some other line features are shown as links
the nodes are often moved to make interpretation easier
the links lengths can be changed to make the map less cluttered
all of the above
e
3. The hamlets of Node and Center are in:( 19.1-2 )
Nevada
Hawaii
Pennsylvania
Kentucky
Neverland
d
4. A map of the lower 48 United States can be made into a network by:( 19.1-6 )
choosing a point within each state, and joining it to states with a shared boundary
assuming that the graph is planar
Dykstra's algorithm
Drawing in the Interstate highways
Counting the number of letters in the state's name
a
5. The Washington DC Metro map shows: ( 19.1-7 )
stations as nodes
rail lines as links
colored lines that function as sub-networks
stations where you can transfer between colored lines
All of the above
e
6. Which of these measures distance within a network?:( 19.1-8 )
the number of nodes encountered
the sum of the lengths of all the links traversed
the number of links traveled
the diameter
all of these
e
7. In a planar graph:( 19.2-2 )
all links are directed
all links are symmetrical
links cannot cross
the graph is aspatial
all nodes link to all other nodes
c
8. In a fully connected planar graph:( 19.3-6 )
all nodes link directly to other nodes
the number of links is less than the number of nodes - 1
links can cross each other
the nodes connect with all the adjacent nodes, forming a convex hull
the connectivity is less than 0.5
d
9. In a non-symmetric planar graph:( 19.2-6 )
one or more of the links can only be traveled in one direction
the diameter depends on the start point
the graph is constrained to a 2D plane
no links can cross
all of the above
e
10. The study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pair-wise relations between objects within a network, is called:( 19.3-2 )
mathematics
cartometry
geometry
graph theory
cartography
d
11. A network graph with 6 nodes and 4 links is:( 19.3-5 )
connected
unconnected
non-symmetric
aspatial
non-planar
b
12. A fully connected aspatial planar graph has 20 links. Compared to this a second network that has a connectivity of 0.5. How many links does the second network have?:( 19.3-7 )
20
15
10
n (n - 1) /2
impossible to tell
c
13. What is a cycle within a network? ( 19.3-9 )
a loop that separates a polygon
an aspatial network
a non-planar part of a planar graph
Dykstra's method
a disconnected segment of the graph
a
14. In New York, if you take the 2 train from 241st Street in the Bronx, and transfer to the Far Rockaway-bound A train, you'll travel over 38 miles, the longest trip possible. In networks, this is called the:( 19.3-10 )
bomb
connectivity
shortest path
diameter
asymmetric non-planar
d
15. The number of nodes, number of links, total length of links and number of circuits in a network can be used to compute:( 19.3-13 )
the alpha index
the beta index
the gamma index
the eta index
all of these
e
16. A network without cycles is called a(n):( 19.4-2 )
planar graph
dykstra
unconnected graph
symmetric graph
tree
e
17. In a tree, links meet at:( 19.4-2 )
alternate nodes
confluences
points of peak accessibility
points of maximum slope
none of the above
b
18. A tree with a branching ratio of 2.0 means that:( 19.4-4 )
each link divides into two links at the next level
links reconnect every two nodes
the graph is non-planar
the graph is aspatial
water flows back uphill
a
19. A radial drainage pattern might be expected: ( 19.4-5 )
near airports
in folded hills
around a single peak
in West Virginia
none of the above
c
20. A Hydrological unit code is:( 19.4-9 )
an index to a stream
used in the National Hydrographic Database
for Mad River, HUC 12-041402020201
a hierarchical stream label
all of the above
e
21. Many airlines use what kind of network?( 19.4-10 )
planar non-symmetric
spoke and hub
mesh
ring
aspatial planar
b
22. Which involves using a network solution, such as a heuristic:( 19.5-2 )
navigating from node A to node B
finding the shortest route
finding the fastest route
finding the path with the fewest links
all of the above
e
23. Dykstra, A-star, and Bellman-Ford-Moore are examples of:( 19.5-3 )
measures of network diameter
accessibility indices
network indices, such as alpha and gamma
shortest path algorithms
brute force solutions
d
24. A map showing lines joining points that take equal time to reach from a fixed location uses:( 19.5-4 )
isobaths
contours
isochrones
colors
heatmaps
c
25. What networks are NOT shown on USGS topographic maps?:( 19.1-2 )
streams
roads
property boundaries
power lines
social networks
e
1. A multivariate map can show:( 20.1-2 )
one theme over time
two or more themes
relationships among variables
use of animation, small multiples, or choropleths
all of the above
e
2. Examples of animations given in the module include:( 20.1-3 )
earthquakes felt in California and the global carbon balance
census data on cities over 100 000 population
airline traffic over the lower 48 states and the granting of statehood
world fires and spread of the Zebra mussel
none of the above
d
3. Which of these is a small multiple:( 20.1-4 )
a single frame of an animation
an animates map showing different dates for the same map base
a series of small similar graphics or maps, allowing them to be easily compared
choropleth maps with differential color schemes
choropleth maps with monochrome shade sequences
c
4. The differential color choropleth map example in this module showed female to male salary rations using:( 20.1-5 )
high female salaries in red, near even in yellow, high male in green
high male salaries in red, near even in yellow, high female in green
high female salaries in pink, near even in yellow, high male in blue
high female salaries in blue, near even in yellow, high male in red
a monochrome sequence of grey to black
a
5. A bivariate choropleth map shows: ( 20.1-7 )
poverty level
two variables, such as income and education, using colors and shades
three variables, using the height of the column glyph
multiple variables shown using pie charts at points
none of the above
b
6. What is true of multi-themed maps?:( 20.1-10 )
As time sequences become long or as more variables are shown, pattern is harder to see
It is better to show only change, and leave unchanged areas blank
It is better to use maps placed together than to combine themes
Animation is the most effective way to show change and relationship among variables.
all of the above
e
7. What is "a map in which the geometry of the map has been transformed by uneven rescaling to show some other variable as being represented by geographic space?"( 20.2-2 )
a glyph
an isoline
a choropleth
a cartogram
a bar chart
d
8. Three types of cartograms are:( 20.2-5 )
point, line and area
nominal, ordinal and interval
connected, disconnected and partially connected
ambiguous, contiguous and systematic
Dorling, contiguous, non-contiguous
e
9. What type of data are often shown on a cartogram based on state population?( 20.2-4 )
unemployment rates
stock prices
election results
the rise and fall of nations
state income taxes
c
10. Extraterrestrial mapping is:( 20.3-2 )
maps of the moon, planets, sun, stars and sky
the star maps sold on corners in Hollywood
included with the Astrology listing in daily newspapers
maps showing UFO sightings since 1950
any map showing Area 51
a
11. A sky survey map is:( 20.3-6 )
available from the Sloan Sky Survey
shows the sky as visible from earth
includes all the known and observed stars, planets, galaxies, etc
is visible in Google Earth
all of the above
e
12. The relief, or highest minus lowest elevation (depth), on earth is 19 700m. On Mars it is:( 20.3-5 )
31m
3 100m
also 19 700m
about 31 000m
about 310 000m
d
13. What is the advantage of having a map on paper? ( 20.4-3 )
it works without power
it works in all weather conditions and even when folded or ripped
it can hold color and line work for centuries at low cost
it is easy to use and interpret
all of the above
e
14. Uses for paper maps include:( 20.4-4 )
navigation
route planning
education
recreation
all of these and more
e
15. Maps showing weather and climate information can be found at:( 20.5-2 )
www.choropleth.biz
www.weatherbug.com
www.zillow.com
www.cartogis.org
all of these
b
16. Two weaknesses common in maps showing climate change and its consequences are:( 20.5-8 )
an inability to show change
the means of displaying the two poles
choice of projection and use of colors
the map scale and legend
the amount of generalization
c
17. During the period 1957-2006, temperatures in the Western Antarctic:( 20.5-6 )
fell 0.25 degrees
fell 0.1 degrees
remained the same
rose 0.25 degrees
science is still debating global warming
d
18. A geological map shows:( 20.6-3 )
point symbols such as strike/dip markers
line symbols such as fault lines
area symbols such as surface outcrops
greyed out base topographic information
all of the above
e
19. The USGS's "Did You Feel It" earthquake website is an example of: ( 20.6-2 )
a social network
user-contributed geographic information
use of the National Map
the wireless web
nominal area mapping
b
20. Both strike and dip are angles. Which is the direction from true north of the trend of a geological outcrop?( 20.6-3 )
strike direction
dip angle
strike and dip
azimuth
compass north
a
21. An old map such as Waaldemuller's map showing America is what kind of map?( 20.7-2 )
digital
historical Atlas
historical map
map of history
a time line
c
22. The openstreetmap.org map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti createed after the earthquake of January 2010 is historical because:( 20.7-6 )
it was funded by USAID
it used a new map scale
it was created by a single mapping agency
its creation by volunteers was an excellent first example of volunteered geographic information
it was the most expensive map ever made
d
23. What kinds of maps are "invisible"?:( 20.8-2 )
images of parts of the electromagnetic spectrum invisible to humans
thematic maps of complex social or economic variables
virtual travel
tactile maps
all of these
e
24. The tactile map showing a station was from:( 20.8-4 )
India
Turkey
Saudi Arabia
Hong Kong
New York
d
25. What is a connection between the Interstate highway system and the zero milestone marker in Washington DC?:( 20.9-5 )
both involved measuring highways
both involved Dwight D. Eisenhower
both cost the same amount of money
both were completed in the same year
there is no connection
b
1. Cartography's sister disciplines are:( 21.6-2 )
photogrammetry
computer assisted cartography
visual analytics
remote sensing
all of the above plus geographic information systems/science
e
2. What is the practice of determining the geometric properties of objects from photographic images?:( 21.1-2 )
photogrammetry
computer assisted cartography
visual analytics
remote sensing
geographic information science
a
3. What is the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by visual interactive interfaces?:( 21.3-2 )
photogrammetry
computer assisted cartography
visual analytics
remote sensing
geographic information science
c
4. What is the acquisition of information about an object without being in physical contact with it?:( 21.4-2 )
photogrammetry
computer assisted cartography
visual analytics
remote sensing
geographic information science
d
5. What is an automated system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data?: ( 21.5-2 )
photogrammetry
computer assisted cartography
visual analytics
remote sensing
a geographic information system
e
6. What is an interdisciplinary field on the use and theory of GIS, that examines how the methods can be better applied and improved?:( 21.5-2 )
photogrammetry
computer assisted cartography
visual analytics
remote sensing
geographic information science
e
7. What was taken from a balloon 520 m above Paris by Gasper Felix Tournachon in 1858( 21.1-3 )
the first photograph
the first remotely sensed image
the first photograph to be interpreted and annotated
the first map
his fellow balloonist's wallet
c
8. The first college classes in photogrammetry date from:( 21.1-4 )
1858
the 1920s
the 1950s
1934
Photogrammetry is not taught in college
b
9. Cold War spy satellites and balloons used aerial cameras to spy on what the denied territory?:( 21.1-5 )
France and Spain
Texas
Bolivia
the Soviet Union and China
Antarctica
d
10. The first generation of USGS topographic maps made using air photos date from:( 21.1-5 )
1776
1812
1927
the 1950s
the 1990s
d
11. Photo interpretation elements used in the detection, identification, labeling and measurment of map features include:( 21.1-8 )
color
contrast
texture
shadow
all of the above
e
12. Gathering together multiple air photos and maps to aid in interpretation is called:( 21.1-9 )
cartography
information fusion
georectification
visual analytics
Bonnie Claire, Nevada
b
13. In what sister discipline were computer tools first used to automate tedious and error-prone manual tasks, such as drawing graticules on maps? ( 21.2-2 )
photogrammetry
computer assisted cartography
visual analytics
remote sensing
a geographic information system
b
14. Two early computer mapping programs were:( 21.2-4 )
AutoCAD and MS-Word
MicroMap and MapWindow
GIS and DEM
GoogleMap and BaiduMap
MicroCAM and MicroDEM
e
15. Computer mapping increasingly uses what tool?:( 21.2-5 )
stadia poles
Internet and the world wide web
stereoscope
paper and ink
magnetic compass
b
16. A graphic consisting of jumbled text, with font size proportional to word frequency is called a:( 21.3-5 )
word cloud
tag map
box plot
network graph
tree map
a
17. A graphic consisting of adjacent rectangles, sized and colored according to some value is called a:( 21.3-6 )
word cloud
tag map
box plot
network graph
tree map
e
18. What is an annual conference that focuses particularly on creating specialized graphics and visual forms for information displays?( 21.3-2 )
AutoCarto
GIScience
GeoComputation
InfoVis
GeeWhis
d
19. The first space remote sensing program which ran from 1958-1972 was called: ( 21.4-2 )
Landsat
NASA
CORONA
Aster
GeoEye
c
20. Which are important properties of remotely sensed data?( 21.4-7 )
spectral resolution
spatial resolution
swath width
encoding depth
all of these
e
21. Since 2003 what problem has left parallel diagonal lines along the edges of Landsat image swaths?( 21.4-8 )
errors made when the camera lens was manufactured
the increased curvature of the earth
a collision with space junk
interference from the increasing number of cell phones
the satellite's scan line corrector failure
e
22. How do most people have contact with remotely sensed imagery?:( 21.4-4 )
on open day at NASA bases
by using Google Maps and Google Earth
through coffee table books
when passing red-light cameras
by joining the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
b
23. A typical GIs workflow includes:( 21.5-4 )
locate input data
display and reproject the map
conduct a point-in-poygon analysis, add the count to the data table
select the result and create a map display
all of these
e
24. An example of GIS software is:( 21.5-5 )
InkScape
Word
Quantum GIS
GIMP GIS
FaceGIS
b
25. A GIS can add street addresses to automatically assigned geocodes. This is called:( 21.5-6 )
map overlay
address matching
data tabling
rasterizing
bundling
b
1. Which is true of geobrowsers?( 22.1-2 )
A geobrowser is a search engine for the world wide web that conducts searches based on some characteristic of location
At a geobrowser's highest level it can browse imagery anywhere on earth, act as a virtual globe, integrate information
Can search geotagged photos, videos and panoramas
Can see oblique views and 3D models of landscapes and buildings
All of the above
e
2. Compared to regular text-based web searching, a geobrowser is more like:( 22.1-4 )
being in a submarine
using a 1982 Apple II computer
playing video games
reading a clue at a treasure hunt
using page indexing
d
3. Geobrowsers share which common elements?:( 22.1-5 )
Navigate (zoom, pan)
Search by place name
Search by coordinate
Select and display
all of these and more
e
4. The first geobrowser was:( 22.1-6 )
Keyhole
Google Earth
NASA World Wind
Worldwide Telescope
ArcGIS Explorer
c
5. Bhuvan is the equivalent of Google Street View for which country?: ( 22.1-8 )
Canada
China
Indonesia
India
Yemen
d
6. Which two geobrowsers are supported by Microsoft?:( 22.1-8 )
Google Maps and Google Earth
Bing Maps 3D and Worldwide Telescope
ArcGIS Explorer and World Wind
3rd Planet and MapJack
Earthbrowser and Open Web Globe
b
7. Google Earth was reengineered from what prior product in 2005?:( 22.2-1 )
Keyhole Earthviewer
NASA World Wind
Falconview
MicroDEM
Google Pavement View
a
8. The software from which Google Earth developed helped to end what war in December 1995:( 22.2-1 )
World War II
the First Gulf War
the invasion of Iraq
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Afghan
d
9. Google Earth viewer can be downloaded and installed from:( 22.3-6 )
http://www.bing.com/maps/
http://www.google.com/maps
http://www.google.com/earth
http://www.earthviewer.com
The National Map Viewer
c
10. To search using Google Earth, copy a placename or coordinate into the:( 22.3-2 )
community bulleting board
navigation toolbar
browser bar
search window
bitbucket
d
11. To activate a layer, such as 3D buildings in Google Earth, look for the button in the: ( 22.3-5 )
search window
Pacific Ocean
upper right of the display
lower right of the display
lower left of the display
e
12. Google Earth Hacks is:( 22.4-2 )
how you make Google Earth run on a Mac
where you are sent when you click on geographic coordinates on the web
a tool to georectify images
a website that provides links to interesting content found or created by Google Earth users
the name of a soccer player from Chile
d
13. What is Madurodam, near the Hague, Netherlands at 52.099438N, 4.313779E? ( 22.4-4 )
a place where Google Earth shows a parking lot on the side of a building
the place where the Internet was invented
Google's worldwide headquarters
the Dutch cartographic institute
a model of a Dutch town on a 1:25 scale
e
14. Which characterizes Google Street View?:( 22.5-2 )
Street view images are collected by driving specially equipped cars (bikes, etc) around using GPS for position and with multiple cameras
Images are seamed together so that the Google Street View application can simulate a view, and allow navigation
Street view uses the little man icon on the navigation toolbar
Web sites, geotagged photos, web cams also can be shown
All of the above
e
15. In this module, Google Street View was illustrated using:( 22.5-3 )
East Liverpool, Ohio
The Eiffel Tower, Paris
Union Square, New York
Times Square, New York
Lafayette Square, Washington DC
c
16. What happened in Broughton, UK, (52.05399N, 0.6953W) in April 2009 when the Google Car showed up?( 22.5-4 )
an "angry mob" blocked the car, concerned about loss of privacy
residents held up signs supporting Google, still visible in streetview
thieves used the images to break into 8 houses
a loss of power resulted in Broughton being shown in shades of black
a flat front tire caused the images to build up at one spot
a
17. When in Google Maps, how do you initiate Google Street View?( 22.5-5 )
hit Cntrl-Alt-Delete
use the Alt key, or the Apple key on a Mac
drag the little yellow man onto the road network where you want to view from
using a microphone, simply say "Little Yellow Man"
you can only use Street View from Google Earth
c
18. The file format to save or write Google Earth scripts into is called:( 22.6-3 )
Word DOC
KML (Keyhole Markup Language) and KMZ (compressed)
Rich Text Format (RTF)
Executable (EXE)
Bing
b
19. Geobrowsing is best learned by: ( 22.6-4 )
reading the manual
taking a special class
purchasing a textbook
running World Wind
doing it yourself
e
20. Geoprivacy is:( 22.6-4 )
your right and ability to limit knowledge of your location
an mode when using Google maps
only used in the UK
the act of blurring license plates in Google Earth
none of these
a
21. Google Earth can be installed by visiting:( 22.3-6 )
your local map library
Washington DC
www.nga.mil
earth.microsoft.com
earth.google.com
e
22. Information about using Google Earth can be found in:( 22.3-6 )
newsletters
Google Lat Long blog
Google Earth hacks
video tutorials
all of the above
e
23. Google Earth's Mike Jones said of Google Earth:( 22.2-1 )
"Its about location, location, location."
"Google your own house, you'll see."
"We were way before Microsoft."
"We are like an iPod for Earth images."
"Wear sunscreen."
d
24. What is true of the National Geographic magazine:( 22.2-1 )
the cover has a surrounding yellow ellipse
all the maps are available in Google Maps
maps, articles and photographs are available through Google Earth
maps, articles and photographs are available through Bing Maps
none of the above
c
25. In Google Earth, you navigate using:( 22.3-3 )
a toolbar the shows and controls orientation, tilt, pan and zoom
a steering wheel
pull down menus
your hands
thought waves
a
1. Who were the Zeno brothers?( 23.1-2 )
A comedy act that still plays late night television in Italy
The publisher of the 1558 book "Around the World in 80 Days"
Circus tight-rope walkers
The fictitious discoverers of fictitious Frisland, an island in the North Atlantic in 1390
None of these, they never existed
d
2. Who was fooled into including Frisland on maps even 200 years later?( 23.1-2 )
Nicolo Zeno
Martin Waldseemuller
King Henry I
Gerardus Mercator
Rand McNally
d
3. Examples of map errors were illustrated in this module using which USGS quadrangle map?( 23.1-3 )
Washington DC North
Center, Kentucky
Omission, Ohio
Mistake Point, California
Boo Boo Gulch, Arizona
d
4. Which of these is NOT an error found on maps:( 23.1-4 )
omission
commission
systematic
social faux-pas
attribute
d
5. Geographer Mark Monmonier is the author of which book? ( 23.1-5 )
Maps and Web Mapping
Getting Started with GIS
How to Lie With Maps
Mapping the Nation: History & Cartography in 19th Century America
Maps, Yo!
c
6. Bias in old maps was often inevitable because:( 23.2-2 )
pens were wider in the old days
their tools and methods implied sophistication
so much empty space was available on the maps
they were paid for by sponsors and patrons
all of the above
d
7. the "Map of the State of Nebraska showing the lands of the Burlington & Missouri RR Co. 1876" was used to promote:( 23.2-4 )
the railroads, by promoting settlement and agriculture
the California Gold Fields
exploration along rivers
the Public Land Survey system
traveling salesmen
a
8. The Des Moines panoramic view in Andreas' Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa 1875 was promoted by the:( 23.2-6 )
Burlington & Missouri RR Co
Microsoft Corp
QUaker Oats
Hawkeye Insurance Company
Major League Baseball
d
9. The motto for the 1942 Montana State Highway Commission map was:( 23.2-7 )
conserve gasoline for the war effort
loose lips sink ships
a chicken in every pot
planes and tanks in the sky
travel strengthens America
e
10. Maps have been used in the US to promote what?:( 23.2-8 )
settlement
farming
transportation
business
all of the above
e
11. Maps are used to claim territory due to what factors?: ( 23.3-2 )
history
discovery
ethnicity
occupation
all of these
e
12. An example of a claim to territory due to discovery is:( 23.3-5 )
Australia's claim to part of Antarctica
Pakistan's claim to parts of Jammu and Kashmir
Argentina's claim to the Malvinas/Falkland Islands
Norway's claims to Antarctica (Amundsen first to South Pole)
the United States claim to the American West
d
13. What three countries are in dispute over Jammu and Kashmir?( 23.3-3 )
Iraq, Afghanistan and the United States
China, Taiwan and the Philippines
Pakistan, India and Bangladesh
Kazakstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan
India, Pakistan and China
e
14. A map that has an inclination to present or hold a partial perspective at the expense of (possibly equally valid) alternatives shows:( 23.4-2 )
spirit
bias
random error
disputed territories
all of the above
b
15. The three choropleth maps of Michigan Unemplyment in March 2012 change the look of the distribution by:( 23.4-3 )
faking the numbers from the Labor Department
changing the classification method and number of classes
adding random variations
subtracting random variations
outsourcing the statistics to India
b
16. The Census map of the 1860 distribution of slave population in the South influenced:( 23.4-4 )
the Battle of Shiloh
Lincoln's issuance of the emancipation proclamation
the 1870 map
the stock market
Jefferson Davis
b
17. What kind of maps appear to minimize any bias:( 23.4-6 )
fancy maps using innovative cartographic methods
maps of disputed territory
war propaganda maps
non-partisan, well designed, conventional, effective and simple maps
web maps
d
18. What is true of maps in wartime?:( 23.5-2 )
they are major instruments of warfighting
they are media for propaganda
they can both inform and spread misinformation
they can create fear and anxiety
all of these and more
e
19. What are procedures used to deliberately confuse, mislead or camouflage oneself from the enemy called?( 23.5-4 )
maskirovka
cheating
maps that claim
cartographic traps
wartime maps
a
20. Maskirovka was used by what country during the Cold War on its maps?:( 23.5-4 )
South Korea
Australia
Austria
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
the United States
d
21. The late 1940s or early 1950s Soviet propaganda map shows Joseph Stalin looking at what?:( 23.5-8 )
collective farms in central Asia as if they were armies in a war to defeat drought
the Gulag archipelago
the Pacific Ocean
the western front in 1944
Vietnam
a
22. US maps during the Cold War often showed?:( 23.5-9 )
distance rings and attach paths for bomber aircraft and missiles
survival shelters in cities
South America
Antarctica
countdown clocks to nuclear anihilation
a
23. To show the German people that they were under threat before World War II the Illustrite Zeitung published a map showing that Germany was:( 23.5-10 )
about to conquer Europe
surrounded by well equipped enemy armies
right to oppose militarism
well prepared for defense
open to invasion from Great Britain
b
24. School maps in North Korea don't have:( 23.5-11 )
graticules
internal regions shown
the map scale labeled
the projection correctly labeled
South Korea
e
25. What is a fictitious entry of a misrepresented street on a map for the purpose of "trapping" potential copyright violators?( 23.6-4 )
cartographic error
a random error
a cartographic trap
Mistake Point
An A-Z map
c
1. What spatial reasoning skills are deeply embedded in humans?( 24.1-2 )
positioning
direction-finding
navigation
spatial search
all of these
e
2. What is spatial literacy?( 24.1-2 )
minimal skill set in humans for spatial reasoning
being able to outsmart a chimpanzee
being able to read books
being able to write your name
something absent in all but a few people
a
3. Why are mazes good places to test spatial ability?( 24.1-3 )
they are usually available around Halloween
they have nice green hedges
humans always solve them using only one strategy
they deliberately remove all environmental clues to location
they are cheap to make and use
d
4. A decision point in a maze is where:( 24.1-5 )
all paths intersect
the end/exit point is found
a pixel is green
a choice must be made with respect to which way to go
a yellow line reachess a red pixel
d
5. If you follow the strategy of: always turn left, unless it is an obvious dead end in which case backtrack to a decision point and turn right, what will happen in a maze?( 24.1-6 )
you will remain in an infinite loop, unable to find the exit
you will find your way back to the entrance
you will find your way to the exit
you will never backtrack along a segment
all of the above
c
6. Which statement is false?( 24.1-12 )
Some people have better inherent spatial thinking skills than others
Spatial knowledge can be stored and passed on
People with less spatial ability can learn from those with more
All human spatial knowledge is related to navigation
Methods exist for transfer of sailing, flight and web navigation knowledge
d
7. The ultimate spatial literacy question is:( 24.1-13 )
Who was John Harrison?
What is at the top of the mountain?
How do you state latitude and longitude?
Where is Paris?
Where am I?
e
8. If I use the Google image similarity search function and enter a picture from the website www.where-is-this.com, what happens?( 24.2-13 )
I get a picture of St Paul's cathedral in London
I may get the website that contains the picture
I get a picture with the same color combinations as the picture, but of a different size
My broswer crashes
I am sent to maps.google.com
b
9. Determining position without use of a positioning aid or map requires relating ones self to what?( 24.2-2 )
the moons of Jupiter
the earth's magnetic field
the environment
the zero milestone marker
Meades Ranch, Kansas
c
10. The yellow graffiti-covered building in this module turned out to be where?( 24.2-13 )
Paris, France
Long Island City, Queens, New York
Washington, DC
Lavender Canyon, Utah
Varanasi, India
b
11. Which of these are environmental clues in maps and images? ( 24.2-6 )
Shadow
Illumination
Time of day and year
Patterns of vegetation
All of the above
e
12. What was true about the USGS images of Lavender Canyon, near Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah?( 24.2-7 )
It was actually a picture of the Grand Canyon
It actually showed mountains in Kashmir
It was colorized from the black and white original
It was taken just after sunrise
It was probably taken not from Lavender Canyon, but from an overlook on Route 148
e
13. Which of these is an example of a spatial search strategy?( 24.2-9 )
Start at the most likely places, e.g. place where last seen
Use systematic search, e.g. by grid or quadrat
Do a sweep search, e.g. volunteers arms length apart through brush
Wander at random through the search area
All of the above
e
14. The streetscape with dozens of motorcycles was thought to be:( 24.2-10 )
on the Ghats near the river Ganges, Varanasi, India
in a tourist area of Hanoi, Vietnam
outide a bar in Toledo, Ohio
in Lavender Canyon, Utah
at Mistake Point, California
b
15. How can spatial changes be detected and interpreted?( 24.3-2 )
Using a time line
Using a changeometer on a map
Using multiple co-registered maps or images
Using wikipedia
By waiting for change to happen
c
16. What happened in Joplin, Missouri on May 22nd, 2011?( 24.3-3 )
a catastrophic tornado struck killing 160 people
the great American BBQ cook-off took place
a landslide closed I-44
a volcano created an island in the middle of Oscie Ora Arces Lake
the First City Bank of Joplin declared bancruptcy
a
17. Which of the following was NOT a topic of this class?( 24.0-1 )
spatial reasoning
spatial knowledge
spatial thinking
spatial literacy
all of these were topics of the class
e
18. Comparing Landsat images of Tehran, Iran in 1985 and 2009, the major difference is:( 24.3-8 )
the proliferation of nuclear power plants
the reduction in the number of roads
creation of a new island within Lake Tehran
the amount of urban expansion
there is no major difference
d
19. What is true of using maps or images from different times to detect and understand spatial change? ( 24.3-11 )
You need time-complete data with a short enough temporal step
There is no need for the maps or images to be co-registered
Two images is enough
It is unnecessary to compare images, just maps will do
The rules of chess must apply
a
20. What is "an urban scene imaged by oblique or ground level photograph or video"?( 24.4-2 )
a street view
an everyscape
a Flickr image
a streetscape
a YouTube video
d
21. Street images are available on the web through:( 24.4-2 )
Flickr
Panoramio
Google Streetview
Google Maps
all of the above
e
22. Why do Hindus seek to be cremated or to visit Varanasi, India?( 24.4-8 )
to drink the crystal clear water of the Ganges
so that they can escape the cycle of reincarnation
to buy the terrific street food
it is in the geometric center of India
to visit the place where the Beatles stayed in 1966
b
23. To fully understand a streetscape, including determining the location, date and what is happening you should:( 24.4-7 )
rely on wikipedia
use Google Maps
do a Google image similarity search
use web accounts, and all available maps and images
call a friend
d
24. Acquiring spatial knowledge requires:( 24.5-3 )
integrating knowledge and being inquisitive about the world around you
using the power of geobrowsers and the web
being informed by other disciplines
using maps whenever you can
all of the above
e
25. Who said "Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness, and many of our people need it sorely on these accounts"?( 24.5-4 )
George W. Bush
Jon Stewart
Waldo Tobler
Mark Twain
George Harrison
d