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SOCI 101 Final Exam Review Questions
Terms in this set (82)
In the United States, we expect the cab drivers will know how to get around a city. This expectation is an example of _______________.
_______________ occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.
In sociological terms, _______________ is what we call any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis.
The Shaker's, a religious sect that came to the United States in 1774, has seen their group's membership diminish significantly due to their inability to _______________.
The _______________ argues that the present organization of social institutions is no accident.
The U.S. Postal Service, the Boston Pops orchestra, and the college or university you are currently enrolled as a student are all examples of _______________.
One positive consequence of bureaucracy is that it reduces bias. Reduction of bias results from the characteristic _______________.
every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence
According to the Peter principle, _______________.
moral persuasion, gossip, and gestures
Social control in what Ferdinand Tonnies termed a Gemeinschaft community is maintained through _______________.
Sociologist Daniel Bell uses the term _______________ to refer to a society whose economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information.
they desensitize us to events
From the functionalist perspective, the media can be dysfunctional in the way that _______________.
Sociologist Robert Park studies how newspapers helped immigrants to the United States adjust to their environment by changing their customary habits and by teaching them the opinions held by people in their new home country. His study was conducted from the _______________.
the effect of using the television as a babysitter and the impact of violent programming on view behavior.
There are problems inherent in the socialization function of the mass media. For example, many people worry about _______________.
it creates unrealistic expectations of what is required to be happy, it creates new consumer needs, and advertisers are able to influence the media content
Media advertising has several clear functions, but it also has dysfunctions. Sociologists are concerned that _______________.
television, publishing, and music
Gatekeeping, the process by which a relatively small number of people control what material reaches an audience, is largely dominant in _______________.
_______________ is especially concerned with the media's ability to decide what gets transmitted through gatekeeping.
the increasing frequency of single moms in the media is providing a negative role model for women
_______________ is NOT a problem feminist theorists see through media coverage.
men account for 100 percent of players in online sports fantasy leagues
_______________ is NOT true concerning how men and women use the internet.
Sociologists Paul Lazarsfeld and his colleagues pioneered the study of _______________.
In his study of how social composition of audience members affected how they interpreted the news coverage of riots in Los Angeles in 1992, sociologist Darnell Hunt found _______________ differences in perception.
Society brings about acceptance of basic norms through techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior. This process is termed _______________.
The _______________ argues that people must respect social norms if any group or society is to survive.
going along with peers
Stanley Milgram used the word conformity to mean _______________.
_______________ suggests that our connection to members of a society leads us to conform systemically to society's norms.
_______________ is behavior that violates the standards of conduct/expectations of a group or society.
_______________ illustrated the boundary-maintenance function of deviance in his study of Puritans in 17th-century New England.
rather than writing an original essay, a student copies his submission from the internet
An example of innovation as defined in Robert Merton's anomie theory of deviance is _______________.
_______________ first advanced the idea that an individual undergoes the same basic socialization process whether learning conforming or deviant acts.
social disorganization theory
_______________ contends that criminal victimization increases when communal relationships and social institutions break down.
_______________ conducted observation research on two groups of high school males (the Saints and the Roughnecks) and concluded that social class played an important role in varying fortunes of the two groups.
_______________ describes a condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
In Karl Marx's view, the destruction of the capitalist system will occur only if the working class first develops _______________.
class, status, and power
_______________ were viewed by Max Weber as analytically distinct components of stratification.
The _______________ argues that stratification is universal and that social inequality is necessary so that people will be motivated to fill socially important positions.
British sociologists Ralf Dahrendorf viewed social classes as groups of people who share common interests resulting from their authority relationships. Dahrendorf's ideology aligns best with the _______________.
The respect or admiration that an occupation holds in a society is referred to as _______________.
Approximately ______________ of people in the United States live below the poverty line established by the federal government.
_______________ has applied functionalist analysis to the existence of poverty and argues that various segments of society actually benefit from the existence of the poor.
A measure of social class that is based on income, education, and occupation is known as _______________.
downward intergenerational mobility
A plumber whose father was a physician is an example of _______________.
The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural domination over a people by a foreign power for an extended period is referred to as _______________.
In viewing the global economic system as divided between nations that control wealth and those that are controlled and exploited, sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein draws on the _______________.
Immanuel Wallerstein would classify _______________ as a core country within the world economic system.
halve extreme poverty worldwide
The _______________ goal of the Millennium Project has already been reached.
_______________ to the delivery of aid to developing countries has been successful in Uganda.
_______________ argues that multinational corporations can actually help developing nations of the world
The term _______________ is used by contemporary social scientists to describe the far-reaching process by which peripheral nations move from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies.
income is distributed more evenly across the population in Brazil than in the United States
The statement _______________ is NOT true.
In at least 22 nations around the world, the most affluent 10 percent receives at least _______________ of all income.
Karuna Chanana Ahmed, an anthropologist from India who has studied developing nations, calls _______________ the most exploited of oppressed people.
Both males and females are physically capable of learning to cook and sew, yest most Western Societies determine that women should perform these tasks. This illustrates the operation of _______________.
An important element in traditional views of proper "masculine" and "feminine" behavior is fear of homosexuality. This fear, along with accompanying prejudice, is referred to as _______________.
The most crucial agents of socialization in teaching gender roles in the United States are _______________.
cultural conditioning is the most important factor in determining the social roles of males and females
Research by anthropologist Margaret Mead has shown that _______________.
functionalist and conflict perspectives
The _______________ would acknowledge that it is not possible to change gender roles drastically without dramatic revisions in a culture's social structure.
male prejudice and discrimination against women
The term sexism is generally used to refer to _______________.
_______________ in the United States are more likely than _______________ to attend college.
The _______________ distinguishes between instrumental and expressive roles.
race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status
Contemporary feminists recognize the differential treatment of some women not only because of their gender, but also because of their _______________.
The sense of sisterhood that became evident during the rise of the contemporary feminist movement resembled the Marxist concept of _______________.
Alice, age seven, lives in a private home with her parents, her grandmother, and her Aunt. Alice's family is an example of a(n) _______________.
In _______________ a person may have several spouses in his or her lifetime, but only one spouse at a time.
The marriage of a women to more than one man at the same time is referred to as _______________.
The _______________ system of descent is followed in the United States.
According to the functionalist perspective, _______________ is NOt one of the paramount functions performed by the family.
_______________ requires mate selection outside certain groups, usually one's own family or certain kinfolk.
The _______________ emphasizes lineage and maintenance of family position.
the rising divorce rate, high rents, and financial difficulties
One recent development in family life in the United States has been the extension of parenthood as adult children continue to live at home or return home after college. The reason for this is _______________.
In the United States, the majority of all babies born to unmarried teenage mothers are born to _______________.
the liberalization of divorce laws, the fact that contemporary families have fewer children than earlier families did, and the general increase in family income
_______________ are all associated with the high divorce rate in the United States.
capitalism and socialism
_______________ distinguish contemporary industrial societies.
means of production
The _______________ are held largely in private hands.
the accumulation of profits
The main incentive for economic activity is _______________.
regulates private ownership and economic activity
The degree to which the government _______________ will vary.
elite theory of power
G. William Domhoff's model is an example of an _______________.
lowest among industrialized nations
In terms of voter turnout, the United States typically ranks _______________.
force, influence, and authority
_______________ are the three basic sources of power within any political system.
_______________ is NOT part of the classification system of authority developed by Max Weber.
According to C. Wright Mills, power rests in the hands of the _______________.
The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity such as factories and plants is called _______________.
women, racial minorities, and ethnic minorities
Sociologists labor specialists for see a workforce increasingly composed of _______________.
Currently, _______________ refers to positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities.
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