38 terms

Logic, sets and probability vocab


Terms in this set (...)

used to introduce an additional comment or interjection.∧
An antecedent is the first half of a hypothetical proposition, whenever the if-clause precedes the then-clause
an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion
full quantity or amount; complete allowance.
complementary events
Two events are described as complementary if they are the only two possible outcomes
compound propositions
A compound proposition is a proposition that involves the assembly of multiple statements.
the second member of a conditional proposition
The contrapositive of a conditional statement is formed by negating both the hypothesis and the conclusion, and then interchanging the resulting negations
the converse of a categorical or implicational statement is the result of reversing its two parts
In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint if they have no element in common
disjoint events
two events are disjoint if the probability of them both occurring in the same experiment is zero.
A disjunction is a compound statement formed by joining two statements with the connector OR.
In mathematics, an element, or member, of a set is any one of the distinct objects that make up that set.
empty set
The empty set is the set containing no elements
exclusive disjunction
The exclusive disjunction of a pair of propositions, (p, q), means that p is true or q is true, but not both.
experimental probability
Experimental probability of an event is the ratio of the number of times the event occurs to the total number of trials.
finite set
In mathematics, a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements. For example, is a finite set with five elements.
How often something happens (usually during a period of time).
ype of relationship between two statements or sentences. The relation translates verbally into "logically implies" or "if/then" and is symbolized by a double-lined arrow pointing toward the right ==>
independent events
examples of independent events are: Landing on heads after tossing a coin AND rolling a 5 on a single 6-sided die.
The unknown or variable
infinite sets
A set of elements is said to be infinite if the elements of a proper subset can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the elements of .
An integer is a whole number that can be positive, negative, or zero
the intersection A ∩ B of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements of A that also belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A), but no other elements.
Relating to a mathematical operation whose nature or effect is the opposite of another operation.
logical contradiction
A logical contradiction is the conjunction of a statement S and its denial not-S. In logic, it is a fundamental law- the law of non contradiction- that a statement and its denial cannot both be true at the same time
logical equivalence
type of relationship between two statements or sentences in propositional logic or Boolean algebra. The relation translates verbally into "if and only if" and is symbolized by a double-lined, double arrow pointing to the left and right
mutually exclusive
In logic and probability theory, two propositions (or events) are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both be true (occur).
or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction
a possible result of a probability experiment
A premise or premise is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion.
relative frequency
A relative frequency histogram uses the same information as a frequency histogram but compares each class interval to the total number of items.
sample space
The sample space of an experiment is the set of all possible outcomes of that experiment.
The act, process, or technique of selecting an appropriate sample.
set is a collection of distinct or well defined objects, considered as an object in its own right.
In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.
A compound statement, that is always true regardless of the truth value of the individual statements, is defined to be a tautology