38 terms

And

used to introduce an additional comment or interjection.∧

Antecedent

An antecedent is the first half of a hypothetical proposition, whenever the if-clause precedes the then-clause

Argument

an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion

complement

full quantity or amount; complete allowance.

complementary events

Two events are described as complementary if they are the only two possible outcomes

compound propositions

A compound proposition is a proposition that involves the assembly of multiple statements.

consequent

the second member of a conditional proposition

contrapositive

The contrapositive of a conditional statement is formed by negating both the hypothesis and the conclusion, and then interchanging the resulting negations

converse

the converse of a categorical or implicational statement is the result of reversing its two parts

disjoint

In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint if they have no element in common

disjoint events

two events are disjoint if the probability of them both occurring in the same experiment is zero.

disjunction

A disjunction is a compound statement formed by joining two statements with the connector OR.

elements

In mathematics, an element, or member, of a set is any one of the distinct objects that make up that set.

empty set

The empty set is the set containing no elements

exclusive disjunction

The exclusive disjunction of a pair of propositions, (p, q), means that p is true or q is true, but not both.

experimental probability

Experimental probability of an event is the ratio of the number of times the event occurs to the total number of trials.

finite set

In mathematics, a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements. For example, is a finite set with five elements.

frequency

How often something happens (usually during a period of time).

implication

ype of relationship between two statements or sentences. The relation translates verbally into "logically implies" or "if/then" and is symbolized by a double-lined arrow pointing toward the right ==>

independent events

examples of independent events are: Landing on heads after tossing a coin AND rolling a 5 on a single 6-sided die.

indeterminate

The unknown or variable

infinite sets

A set of elements is said to be infinite if the elements of a proper subset can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the elements of .

intergers

An integer is a whole number that can be positive, negative, or zero

intersection

the intersection A ∩ B of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements of A that also belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A), but no other elements.

inverse

Relating to a mathematical operation whose nature or effect is the opposite of another operation.

logical contradiction

A logical contradiction is the conjunction of a statement S and its denial not-S. In logic, it is a fundamental law- the law of non contradiction- that a statement and its denial cannot both be true at the same time

logical equivalence

type of relationship between two statements or sentences in propositional logic or Boolean algebra. The relation translates verbally into "if and only if" and is symbolized by a double-lined, double arrow pointing to the left and right

mutually exclusive

In logic and probability theory, two propositions (or events) are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both be true (occur).

or

or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction

outcomes

a possible result of a probability experiment

premise

A premise or premise is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion.

relative frequency

A relative frequency histogram uses the same information as a frequency histogram but compares each class interval to the total number of items.

sample space

The sample space of an experiment is the set of all possible outcomes of that experiment.

sampling

The act, process, or technique of selecting an appropriate sample.

set

set is a collection of distinct or well defined objects, considered as an object in its own right.

SUBSET

In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.

TAUTLOGY

A compound statement, that is always true regardless of the truth value of the individual statements, is defined to be a tautology

proposition

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