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Microbiology Final Part 4
Terms in this set (86)
ability of a microorganism to cause disease
degree of pathogencity
How microorganisms enter body?
portal of entry
Which mode of entry is most frequently used by pathogenic microbes?
infectious dose for 50% of a sample population to get sick
Almost all pathogens attach to host tissues in a process called
what an antibody binds to
How can some bacteria avoid being destroyed by antibodies?
A. They prevent the host from making any antibodies
B. They change the antigens on their surfaces
C. They are mobile enough to avoid contacting antibodies
They change the antigens on their surfaces
poisonous substance produced by certain organisms
Produce fever, cardiovascular problems, diarrhea, and shock
How do most bacterial toxins cause disease?
A. By mutating our DNA
B. By inactivating our antibodies
C. By interfering with our protein synthesis
D. By damaging cell membranes
By damaging cell membranes
Exotoxins= "Exo" means
Proteins produced inside bacteria as part of their normal metabolism and growth
Secreted outside of
Destroy host cells and inhibit metabolic functions
released outside the cell
What can exotoxins do to our cells?
Put holes in plasma membranes
Intense immune response
Which kind of bacteria make endotoxins?
A. Gram positive
B. Gram negative
in the cell wall
Released during bacterial multiplication and when gram-negative bacteria die
Endotoxins from different species of bacteria produce same signs and symptoms:
Chills, fever, aches, low blood pressure, and sometimes even death
How do endotoxins make us sick?
As pathogens metabolize and multiply in our cells, our cells can rupture
Some microbes secrete enzymes that damage our plasma membranes
Once a cell has ruptured, pathogen can spread to other tissues in even greater number
Microbes also do direct damage to our cells
Infections give us a fever
An immune cell ingests a gram-negative bacterium.
The bacterium is degraded, releasing
endotoxins that cause the cell to release signals that a danger exists (cytokines)
The cytokines are released into the blood- stream, where they travel to the hypothalamus, the temperature control center of the brain.
The cytokines induce the hypothalamus to produce Chemicals which reset the body's "thermostat" to a higher temperature, producing fever.
study of fungi
Fungus are eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
Fungal body consists of ________ filaments (thread-like structures
Hyphae (happy= flowers) looks like one branches of flowers.
A loosely organized mass of hyphae is ________
mycelium (network) mycology is the study of fungus with a network of researchers.
Structures of a fungus:
(White fuzzy texture) _________ hyphae obtain nutrients
Structures of a fungus: (Black spots) ___________ hyphae produce spores
Reproductive (cause they PRODUCE spores)
yeasts and dimorphic fungi
How do fungi reproduce?
A. Sexual reproduction
B. Binary fission
C. Asexual reproduction
D. Both sexual and asexual reproduction
Both sexual and asexual reproduction
Spores allow fungi to reproduce
sexually and asexually
Fusion of nuclei form two opposite mating strains
Produced via cell division; formed by the hyphae of one organism
Bacteria and fungi both have ____; however fungi can sexually and asexually reproduce with their spores. Whereas, bacteria have _______ which are not for reproductive purposes.
Fungi can grow best:
at a pH of
in ______ sugar and salt concentration
in ____ moisture content
are among the most difficult diseases to diagnose and treat
Why is it difficult to treat mycoses?
A. They are resistant to penicillin.
B. Signs of mycoses are often missed or misinterpreted
C. Mycoses primarily affect internal organs
D. Mycoses do not produce very many symptoms
B. Signs of mycoses are often missed or misinterpreted
Mycoses are typically acquired via
inhalation (black mold), trauma (open wound- toenail fungus), or ingestion (eating food- yogurt)
Fungal diseases are grouped in three categories of clinical manifestation
1) Fungal infections
3) Allergies (black mold)
(Clinical Manifestation) Most common mycoses- athletes foot, ring worm, jock itch, etc.
Acquired through ingestion
Occurs when poisonous mushrooms are eaten
Most often result from the inhalation of fungal spores
Allergies (black mold)
Exposure to us makes us sick. (Category of fungal agents- just like any other pathogens)
Immune compromised individuals should worry about (Category of fungal agents- just like any other pathogens)
Most common TRUE fungal pathogen affecting humans.
Inhalation of spores into lungs is the most common route of infection.
Histoplasmosis is found
in moist soils containing high levels of N2 from bat and bird droppings.
Histoplasmosis can create four disease affecting?
Systemic (whole body/ organ failure)
True or false??
Most myocoses are contagious.
fungi found on the skin, usually contagious
Dermatophytes (skin loving) outer layer of skin, hair, and nails.
Athlete's foot, toenail fungus, and Ringworm are considered
Systemic Mycoses are caused by
one of the few fungi that can be transmitted between individuals
Candida (opportunistic infection)
Clinical manifestations of Candidiasis (6)
(major organs & babies)
white film covering tongue; what causes diaper rash
"gold standard of anti-fungal agents"
True or false??Antibiotics help fungal infections.
False, they do nothing for them.
live on hosts (benefits), but do not harm them
Commensals (+, 0)
lives on host (benefits), and helps host thrive
lives on host (benefits), and harms host
Lives on host (harmed) , and harms host
Mature forms of the parasite are present and usually reproducing
Definitive host (reproducing)
Immature parasites undergo various stages of maturation in these hosts
How are we exposed to protozoa? (3)
feeding/reproducing stage that lives within host
dormant form that can survive in environment and is infective to new host (protected)
Cyst undergos __________ when ingested by a host and develops into trophozoite
excystment (EXits cysts to become free)
Trophozoites undergo __________ before leaving host in the feces and becoming available to infect other hosts.
Encystment (turns into a cyst to ball up and roll out)
What is the only known definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii?
How does infection of Toxoplasma gondii?
A. Contact with cat feces
B. Consumption of undercooked meat containing the parasite
C. Ingestion or inhalation of contaiminated soil
D. Can cross the placenta and infect the fetus
E. All of the above
All of the above.
Life cycle of T. gondii
1) Immature _____ is shed in cat feces.
2) Mature ________ develop
3) Oocysts can infect many hosts, including, ____, domestic animals, and humans via ingestion. (intermediate host)
4) Ingested _____ devlop into bradyzoites within tissue cysts or into tissue-invading tachyzoites.
5) Cat ingests____ in tissue of cysts of animasl, usually mice
Slow growing form in tissue cysts
50% of schizophrenics and their mothers tested positive for ____
Malaria is caused by?
The eukaryote (protozoa) that is responsible is
The vector for Plasmodium (Malaria) is?
Genus of mosquito that carry Malaria
Reproduction of marlia in body
-back to start-
Why do symptoms only occur every 2-3 days?
Release of merozoites is the same for a given species of plasmodium and is always a multiple of 24 hours
Plasmodium "tells time" via host body temp
Release of gametocytes at night when mosquitos are feeding
use antibodies to detect protozoa
Treatment for Malaria includes _____ from the _______ tree
bark & cinchona tree
Polio is caused by ingesting
water containing feces that have the virus.
A. An enveloped hexagon
B. A helical capsid
D. Complex-bacteria phages
Polio virus is "______" (President FDR would be embarrassed)
naked- no envelope.
Paralysis remaining after ___ year is permanaent
Death from polio results from _______________ failure
Polio-virus is very ________
slow growing- deteriorating neurons.
Diagnosing feces or throat secretion; takes up to _____ days
The iron lung was used to treat ___
Polio; helped breathing
Ebola is a ______ virus
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