23 terms

Chapter 6: The Periodic Table and Periodic Law

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actinide series
transition metals found at the bottom of the periodic table
lanthanide series
transition metals found at the bottom of the periodic table
alkali metals
group 1 elements, except for hydrogen; highly reactive
alkaline earth metals
group 2 elements; highly reactive
halogens
group 17 elements; highly reactive
inner transition metals
actinide and lanthanide series
metals
Elements that are shiny when smooth and clean, solid at room temperature, and good conductors of heat and electricity. Most are also malleable and ductile, meaning they can be pounded into thin sheets and drawn into wires.
metalloids
elements with physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals
noble gases
group 18 elements; unreactive
period
row in the periodic table
group
column in the periodic table
periodic law
There is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number.
representative elements
elements in groups 1, 2, and 13 to 18
transition elements
elements in groups 3 to 12
transition metals
transition elements that are not in the actinide or lanthanide series
s, p, d, and f blocks
See picture
finding valence electrons
The group number for elements in groups 1 and 2 equals the element's number of valence electrons. The group number for elements in groups 13 to 18 equals the element's number of valence electrons plus 10.
finding period number
The energy level of an atom's valence electrons equals its period number.
electronegativity
The relative ability of atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond. This number is assigned and is expressed in terms of a value of 3.98 or less.
ion
an atom or bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative charge
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
octet rule
Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons.
atomic radii
Atomic or ionic radii increase as you move down a group and gain energy levels. They decrease as you move across a period and the attraction between the nucleus and the electrons increases.