Environmental Science: Chapter 7 Biodiversity Test
Terms in this set (63)
list five reasons hotspots are in peril
habitat destruction, climate change, invasive species, exploitation of species, and intro of exotic plant species
what is the IUCN?
classify species that have a high probability of extinction
is there a relationship between hotspots and population density of humans? between hotspots and violence/war?
biodiversity does not affect human density but human activity. hotspots are notable centers of violent conflict, cause biodiversity loss
define/list conservation outcomes at three scales of ecological organization
threatened species, key biodiversity areas, and landscapes
name four species specific threats
hunting, direct exploitation, disease, and predation
what are three conservation responses to species-specific threats?
control of invasive species, captive breeding, and incentives to reduce hunting
what is the biggest threat to species?
degradation and destruction of places where they live
what should be the primary response to biodiversity crisis?
the establishment and effective management of protected areas
how might conservation efforts costs per year per hotspot?
what further experiments could you do based off this experiment?
color of car, cost of car, and gas mileage
how might the impacts on the forest patches differ because the two sites? how might this lad to the differences in diversity you have observed?
one of the sites might have more sunlight and water. also more niches lead to higher biodiversity.
variety of life across all levels of ecological organization
overall biodiversity includes what three subtypes of biodiversity?
genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity
variety of species in particular region. affected by speciation and extinction
generation of new species, most often occurring through allotropic speciation which is caused geographic separation.
decreases the diversity. most often occurring due to rapid or severe changes to environmentally conditions.
what effects do speciation and extinction have on species diversity?
speciation increases species, while extinction decreases species diversity.
organisms that share certain characteristics, both physical and genetic (DNA) and can breed with one another
science of classifying species and grouping them into general (singular genus) species that are closely related
five taxonomic groups above genus level
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, species, genus
populations of organisms that has genetically based characteristics (size and color differ from members of the same species in a different area)
how are subspecies formed? who does this process differ from speciation?
the subspecies is formed by the process that drives speciation which most often will be through allotropic speciation. however, the mutation in the DNA specific to this subspecies are short of making the subspecies unable to mate.
what is the largest taxonomic group?
describes the difference in DNA among individuals within species and populations.
biodiversity above species level, variety of ecosystem within a given area (many different habitats)
what group is the biggest int terms of species diversity?
where is species richness highest on the planet?
the pattern variation of biodiversity with latitude. closer to equator, the greater the diversity.
what are two features of stable ecosystem?
resilient and resistent
resist environmental changes without losing function
if affected by change can bounce back and regain function
of the 150 most prescribed drugs in the U.S., how many come from nature?
benefits of biodiversity
increases stability of communities and ecosystems, benefit agriculture, benefits medicine for treatment, and can benefit local economies through tourism and recreation.
archaeologists have shown that mass extinctions happen following what event?
following colonization of humans of islands and continents.
disappearance of particular population from a given area, but not globally.
typical/natural the of extinction of species
background rate of extinction
during each of the five mass extinctions, what fraction of families and species has been lost?
more than 1/5 of families and 1/2 of all species have gone extinct.
scientists classify at risk species into what two categories?
at risk species are classified as threatened species and endangered species
in 2009, how many species in the U.S. were classified as endangered or threatened?
according to the red list, what percent of mammal species worldwide area threatened or endangered?
21% of mammal species worldwide are threatened or endangered
what causes biodiversity loss?
population decline and species extinction
what four causes have scientists found for population decline and species extinction?
habitat change/loss, invasive species, pollution, and over harvesting
isolation of small habitats from what use to be one big habitat
what happens as a result of habitat fragmentation?
decreasing species diversity and population becomes smaller.
what are three causes of habitat fragmentation
forest clearing, farming, and road building
habitat change and loss account for the population declines of what percent of mammal and bird species?
83% of mammals and 85% of birds
when is a non native species considered invasive?
population increase rapidly and displace native species
what size temperature change could cause what percentage of the world's plants and animals to be at increased risk of extinction?
1.5-2.5ºC global temp increase can put 20-30% of plants and animals at increased risk of extinction
prevents extinction by protecting at risk species from natural and artificial threats
Endangered Species Act of 1973
what are three major parts of the Endangered Species Act?
forbids gov and private citizens from harming endangered/threatened species, forbids trade in products on the list, and maintain the list of endangered/threatened list and develop recovery plans
what did the 1975 CITES ban?
banned international transport of body parts of endangered species
conservation program to manage, protect, and reintroduce threatened and endangered species. to make up list and help identify recovery plan
species survival plan
part of SSP, process of breeding and raising organisms in controlled conditions
how many SSPs are overseen by AZAs?
strategies of SSPs
hotspot, conservation concession and wildlife corridor
an area that supports 1,500 endemic plant species and rapidly losing biodiversity
how many endemic plant species must a location have in order to be considered a biodiversity hotspot? what percent of the world total does this represent?
at leat 1,500 endemic plant species, 0.5% of world's total
how much habitat must have already been lost from a hotspot?
species found nowhere in the world
the 34 identified hotspots once covered what percent of Earth's land surface? how much do they currently cover?
hotspots once covered 15.7% of the planet. currently cover 2.3% of the planet.
the act by Conservation International to pay countries for the right to conserve its resources and extract them.
the land/passage that connects fragmented habitats dissolving wildlife to have access to more habitat
what benefit do wildlife corridors provide?
connect habitats and therefore increase the size of habitat for endangered species.