TKA 7TH GRADE ~ LIFE SCIENCE 2ND QUARTER EXAM

i just saved you a lot of time ~SOME TERMS MAY BE INCORRECT~
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Terms in this set (...)

types of human blood
A, B, AB, O
heredity
study of genetics
genetics
the study of how traits pass from parent to offspring
Gregor mendel
Austrian monk who preformed experiments (such as cross pollination) on pea plants in the 1850's that helped answer questions about how traits are inherited.
gene
section on a chromosome that has genetic information for one trait
homozygous
when two alleles of a gene are the same, this is the genotype
heterozygous
when two alleles of a gene are diffrent, this is the genotype
punnett square
model used to predict possible genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring - determines percentages
dominant
T - a genetic factor that blocks out another genetic factor
recessive
t - a genetic factor that is blocked by the presence of a dominant factor
self pollination
when the pollen from one plant lands on the pistil of a flower on the same plant
true breeding plant
produces offspring with traits that match the parent plant
chromosome
inside every cell is the nucleus that contains threadlike structures called this
hybrid
two diffrent varieties or breeds
3:1 ratio
alleles
different forms of a gene - 2 for each trait
phenotype
how the allele is expressed or appears
genotype
two alleles that control the phenotype
cross pollination
when someone is able to select which plants pollinated other plants
polygenic inheritance
occurs when multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait - eye color
bacteria
microscopic prokaryotes that live on almost every continent in the world - 5,000 species
capsule
a thick covering around cells that make them immune to antibiotics and helps to keep the cell from drying out.
prokaryotes
unicellular organisms that do not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles
pili
many bacteria have capsules with hairlike structures called _______ that help the bacteria stick to surfaces
flagellum
help move the bacterium
pasturization
heats food to a temperature that kills most harmful bacteria - fruit juice / milk
aerobic
these bacteria need oxygen
aneorobic
these bacteria do not need oxygen to survive
harmful bacteria
can harm your body in some way
antibiotic
medicines that stop the growth and reproduction of bacteria
endospores
can protect bacteria from intense heat, cold or drought
bioremediation
this process uses organisms (such as bacteria) to clean up environmental pollution
beneficial bacteria
most bacteria are helpful - yogurt
fission
asexual reproduction process that forms two genetically identical daughter cells
archea
live in extreme places where bacteria can't - hot springs
viruses
a strand of DNA or RNA surrounded by a layer surrounded by a layer of protein that can infect and replicate in a host cell
4 shapes of viruses
crystal
bacterophase
cilander
sphere
what happens when a virus enters a host cell?
it either becomes active or latent
what happens during the replication of viruses?
virus inserts DNA into host cell. viruses replicate. burst out of cell and kills host cell.
how are some viruses beneficial?
yes
are viruses alive?
no
do viruses stay the same?
no. they mutate constantly
what is a vaccine?
a mixture containing material from one or more deactivated pathogens, such as viruses. it triggers the production of antibodies.
plants
cell wall, cloroplasts, provides food, 260,000 species. producers through photosynthesis
xylem
a type of vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved nutrients from the roots of the stems to the leaves
producer
organisms that use an outside source (ex ~ sun) to make their own food
consumer
an organism that relies on something else for food
cuticle
a waxy protective layer on their leaves, stems, and flowers
cell wall
made of cellulose. protects cell
vascular
a plant that has vascular tissue
nonvascular
a plant that does not have vascular tissue
uses diffusion / osmosis in plants like mosses
rhiziods
bryophytes have rootlike structures called this which anchor it to a surface
stems
this connects the leaves of a plant to the roots. makes new cells.
leaves
main site of photosynthesis
different shapes and sizes
gymnosperms
non flowering cone bearing plants
pine tree - Christmas tree
wood for building
angiosperm
flowering plants - tulips
conifer
grow on all the worlds continents except Antarctica
these are gymnosperms
annual
plants that grow, flower and produce seeds in one growing seasons
biennials
plants that grow, flower and produce seeds in two growing seasons
perennials
plants that grow, flower and produce seeds in 2+ growing seasons
monocots
have seeds with one cotyledon
parallel veins
3 petals per flower
diocots
have seeds with 2 cotyledons
scattered veins
4 / 5 petals for flowers
seed
contains a tiny plant embryo and nutrition that the embryo uses to grow