Miller & Levine Biology Chapter 3

Important terms/concepts from Chapter 3
Consists of all life on Earth, all parts of the Earth on/in which life exists; contains every organism; extends 8 kilo meters above Earth's surface and 11 kilometers below the surface
The study of how organisms react with their surroundings and the organisms around them
Carbon Cycle
Cycle by which carbon is recycled from plants during photosynthesis to animals (respiration) and returned to plants.
Biotic Factors
Biological influences on organisms; any part of the environment with which an organism might interact, which could be animals, plants, mushrooms, bacteria
Abiotic Factors
Physical components of an ecosystem; any nonliving part of the environment, such as sunlight, heat, precipitation, humidity, wind, water currents, soil type, ect.
Primary Producers
Autotrophs: Organisms that make food from either chemical energy or through photosynthesis: Also store food for other animals to use when they eat the autotrophs
Consumers; eat organisms that make their own food; "Other Feeders"
Kill and eat other animals
Eat things that have been killed; feed on the carcass
break down the matter and use some of the pieces and some of the pieces go back into the environment
bacteria and fungi
the main type of decomposers
Eat plants
Eat plants and animals
Heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus
captures light energy and uses it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbon
A process in which chemical energy in used to produce carbohydrates.
Food Chain
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Floating algae that are primary producers in some aquatic food chains
Food Web
A network of feeding interactions; multiple food chains
Trophic Level
Each step in a food chain or food web
Ecological Pyramid
Show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or web: There are three kinds
The total amount of living tissue withing a given trophic level
Pyramids of Energy, Pyramids of biomass, and Pyramids of numbers
The three kinds of ecological pyramids
group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
all the organisms that live in a place, together with their physical environment
an assemblage of different populations that live together
group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
a group of similiar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
secondary consumer
The heron in the picture is at what level?
tertiary consumer
The level of the hawk in the food chain and food web pictured
10% rule
The amount of energy available for the next trophic level