Chapter 12: Global Crime
POL 102, Miami University, Payne
Terms in this set (33)
British East India Company
British company that dominated Indian trade. paid asian farmers to produce opium which was sold to independent wholesalers
Fought so that the British could force the opium trade onto the Chinese people. 1839
Demand for opium in Europe and America was on the rise due to several factors
1. the advancement in medical practices (morphine and heroin) and hypodermic needles to administer
2. significant cultural and economic changes resulted from Industrial revolution
3. migration of Chinese
4. the growth of global trade
5. the rise of mass consumption habits
6. military conflicts (US civil war drugs used to reduce pain)
drives drug trade
countries that cultivate opium poppies (Burma/Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos). smuggle in heroin
Golden Crescent Countries
Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran. smuggle in heroin
Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, South america.
Mexico, Jamaica, Colombia, and Thailand.
War on drugs
stresses supply side control and harsh treatment of drug users. US
drug prevention and harm reduction
emphasizes the need to keep drugs out of society and treat drug abuse as a disease. Europe
Hague Convention of 1911
Broadened the international drug-fighting effort by cracking down on morphine and cocaine. ineffective because some countries such as Germany, insisted that implementation be made conditional on worldwide acceptance.
Harrison Act 1914
US act requiring distributors and prescribers of dugs to be registered and pay taxes
Opium Control Board
Established under the L of N to monitor countries' compliance with international drug agreements
U.S. sponsored anti drug campaign implemented to eradicate colombia's cocaine production. goal was to cut supplies in half by 2005
Harm reduction approaches
aim at drug prevention and drug treatment. Holland pioneered. decriminalized possession and use of small amounts of "soft" drugs (pot), provides "safe injection rooms" so that addicts avoid public places, distributes sterile syringes to reduce spread of AIDS, supports medical treatment.
forced movement of people within or between countries
transporting people from one area to another, where they are subjugated to forced labor or prostitution
feminization of migration
the increasing percentage of women in the migrant population
four waves of sexual human trafficking
first wave: 1970s women from Southeast Asia (Thailand and the Philippines)
second wave: early 1980s women from Africa (Ghana and Nigeria)
third wave: 1980s-1990s women from Latin America (colombia, Brazil, and Dominican Republic)
fourth wave: mirrors complexity of globalization connected with demise of Soviet Union. women from Eastern and Central Europe
Fourth World Conference on Women
Called on governments to prevent trafficking in women
UN Protocol Against the Trafficking in Women and Children
Global effort in 2000 to address growing trafficking problem
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act
Requires the United States to prosecute human traffickers and to publish an annual report on global trafficking.
animals and plants vulnerable to extinction. invasive species, endangered animals, etc. sold for food and pet shops, or sold for consumer goods. medicinal plants have great demand because the health problems associated.
Wild Bird Conservation Act
bans imports of all wild-caught threatened parrots listed in CITES
standard crimes committed online. fraud, pornography, smuggling, copyright and software piracy, identity theft, and extortion
the biggest online marketplace. little control over transactions
one of the most common cybercrimes. a nigerian sends an e-mail asking prospective victims to assist him or her to transfer millions of recently acquired dollars out of Nigeria in exchange for a substantial part of the money.
famous internet virus named after the Indian guide to eroticism.
includes online music piracy and conterfeiting
intellectual property rights
control that people and corporations have over artistic, creative, scientific, industrial, and educational inventions.
far more beneficial to non state actors, including smugglers, drug traffickers, and other global criminal networks, than it has been to nation-states.
global clearinghouse for police information tat assists countries in criminal cases. based in France.
UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime
Global agreement aimed at reducing crime through global cooperation