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Astro Quizzes 9, 10, 11- Caffee
Terms in this set (66)
Io no longer has volcanic activity. (T/F)
Tidal interactions with Jupiter are responsible for the volcanic activity on Io. (T/F)
The average temperature of lavas on Io is 1600 C. (T/F)
The ultimate driver behind plate tectonics is dissipation of heat from the mantle. (T/F)
The magnetic stripes in Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB) are due to:
the "freezing in" of the magnetic field of Earth.
Spacecraft orbiting Mars routinely observe active volcanism. (T/F)
Spacecraft orbiting Mars have seen relatively fresh lava flows. In age these flows could have occurred with the last
Ten million years
The Hadeon Eon on Earth is:
the earliest history of Earth, extending from its formation to about 4 billion years ago.
a super continent that formed about 500 million years ago.
Pangea was assembled about:
300 million years
Geologic time on Mars is divided in:
Numerous lake basins have been discovered on the Martian surface. Although they are dry now when they were filled they were probably comparable in size to:
the largest lakes now present on Earth, like the Black Sea.
The deltas seen on Mars are taken as evidence of:
the presence of water for an extended period of time.
It is hypothesized that Mars had a large ocean about 4 billion years ago. (T/F)
The hypothesized ocean was located in:
the northern hemisphere.
Enceladus and Triton show evidence of cryovolcanism. (T/F)
A basalt is an extrusive igneous rock. (T/F)
The moon orbits in the same direction as Earth rotates. (T/F)
The bright portion of the moon is the mare basalt. (T/F)
The Moon was geologically active for the first 100 Myr after its formation, but since then it has been geologically dead. (T/F)
The mare basalts are younger than the lunar highlands. (T/F)
Most planetary scientists believe that the Moon was formed when:
a Mars-sized planet collided with Earth
Which of the following is true about the Moon?
Its bulk density is less than Earth because it is depleted in iron relative to Earth.
After the hypothesized giant impact that formed the Moon, the Moon would have been orbiting:
closer to Earth, and over time the orbit has moved outward.
Which property of a moon might lead you to believe it was a captured asteroid?
It rotates in the opposite direction than its planet rotates.
The far side of the moon is:
considerably different, it has higher elevation and less mare basalts.
Which object has turned itself inside out numerous times, leading to a situation where lighter elements have escaped, sulfur compounds compose the crust, and primarily heavier elements make up its core?
Io has the most volcanic activity in the Solar System because:
its interior is tidally heated as it orbits around Jupiter
Cryovolcanism occurs when:
low-temperature liquids explode through the surface because of increasing pressure underground
How do particles from the moon Enceladus wind up in Saturn's E ring?
Water geysers erupt from the surface and expel them into space.
Which of the following moons is thought to have a vast ocean of water beneath its frozen surface?
Theia is the name given to the hypothesized impactor that led to the Moon's formation. (T/F)
Which of the following have oxygen isotopes that lie on the terrestrial fractionation line?
Enstatite chondrites; Lunar samples; Terrestrial sampes
A new model of lunar formation - that still involves a giant impact - from researchers at UC Davis may simultaneously explain:
The Moon's orbital inclination relative to Earth; The tilt of the Earth relative to the plane of the ecliptic; The astounding similarity in oxygen isotopes between Earth and the Moon
Although the formation of the Moon is intimately linked by oxygen isotopes to Earth, its formation occurred much later, perhaps one billion years after the formation of Earth. (T/F)
Which events describe events early in the formation of the Moon:
The materials forming the moon likely formed from the material ejected from Earth as a result of a large impact; Less dense material rose to the top, this material formed an anothositic crust about 50 km thick
The upper surface of the lunar crust has been "gardened" by impacts, micrometeorite impacts, and solar irradiation. The layer is referred to as the:
The KREEP terrane is a:
Basalt that is enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous
The scientific objectives of the GRAIL mission were:
Map the structure of the crust; Study the origin of mascons
The Apollo missions are the only missions that have returned samples from the lunar surface back to Earth. (T/F)
Suppose an earthquake occurs on an imaginary planet. Scientists on the other side of the planet detect primary waves but not secondary waves after the quake occurs. This suggests that:
part of the planet's interior is liquid
Present-day erosion on the surface of the Moon is primarily caused by:
Primary waves are seismic longitudinal waves whose paths are deflected when they travel through the Earth's liquid core. (T/F)
Volcanoes on Earth typically occur in the middle of oceans where two tectonic plates are spreading apart. (T/F)
The smoother, less cratered surfaces of the Moon resulted from those areas being protected by the Moon's proximity to Earth. (T/F)
The oldest rocks on the Earth are approximately 4 billion years old. (T/F)
The maria, the dark regions of the Moon's surface, are approximately 1 billion years younger than the rest of its surface. (T/F)
Earth's sky is blue because:
blue light from the sun is more readily scattered by molecules in the atmosphere than red light
Earth releases the energy it receives from the Sun by emitting _________ radiation.
Earth has roughly _________ times more atmospheric pressure than Mars and _________ times less than Venus.
Each halogen atom, such as chlorine, fluorine, and bromine, in the Earth's atmosphere catalyzes the destruction of ozone for a long time ranging from decades to centuries.(T/F)
Auroras are caused by:
gases fluorescing in the atmosphere due to collisions with solar wind particles
Aurorae are produced only near the northern and southern magnetic poles of a planet because charged particles arriving in the solar wind cannot cross the magnetic field lines. (T/F)
All the terrestrial planets have atmospheres as dense or denser than Earth's atmosphere. (T/F)
According to the figure shown below, the different layers of Earth's atmosphere are defined by:
how the temperature varies with altitude
In the absence of the greenhouse effect, the water on the surface of the Earth would:
If the carbon dioxide in Earth's rocks were suddenly released into its atmosphere, Earth could possibly undergo a runaway greenhouse effect. (T/F)
Heating from _________ causes the top of the Earth's stratosphere to be warmer than the bottom.
the ozone layer absorbing UV light
Venus and Earth probably formed with similar amounts of carbon dioxide in their secondary atmospheres. Which of the following is TRUE?
The majority of Earth's carbon is now bound up in rock while Venus's remains in its atmosphere.
The shape of the Earth's magnetosphere is modified by:
the solar wind
The presence of gases like carbon dioxide and water vapor in a planet's atmosphere is direct evidence of _________ in a planet's history.
The planet-wide flow of air from a warmer equator to the colder poles is called Hadley circulation, and an example of this effect is seen on the planet Venus. (T/F)
The main greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of the terrestrial planets are:
carbon dioxide and water vapor
The amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere has been increasing over the last 50 years because of:
the burning of fossil fuels
Without the ozone layer, life on Earth would be in danger from increased levels of _________ radiation.
Why did the terrestrial planets lose the majority of the gas in their primary atmospheres?
They were too hot and their escape velocities too low to hold onto them.
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