IB Biology SL Ecology
IB biology 11 SL Ecology topic.
Terms in this set (53)
a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
The environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.
A group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time.
A group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area.
A community and its abiotic environment.
the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment.
An organism that synthesises its organic molecules from simple organic substances.
An organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms.
An organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed.
An organism that ingests non living organic matter.
An organism living on or in, non-living matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing products of digestion.
the feeding relationships between organisms in a community.
the chain from the food source to the ultimate consumer.
a series of organisms related by predator-prey and consumer-resource interactions.
Of the plant biomass consumed by a typical herbivore... ___% is not assimilated. is lost as faeces.
Of the plant biomass consumed by a typical herbivore... ___% is assimilated but lost as heat during cellular respiration.
Of the plant biomass consumed by a typical herbivore... ____% is consumed and assimilated and incorporated into biomass.
What recycles nutrients? (2 things)
Saprotrophic bacteria and fungi
Exponential, Transitional, Plateau
The Sigmoid growth curve. What are the three phases?
Exponential growth phase
unlimitable resources such as food and water, lots of mates, space, etc.
Transitional growth phase
Limiting factors start to kick in. Competition. Competition for resources due to genetic variation. Natural selection.
at K. Steady due to limiting factor.
What are three factors that limit population growth size?
Availability of resources
Introduction of new competitors
Loss of habitat
Reduction in number of primary producers
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
the mass of air surrounding the Earth
the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
gas that is a reactant of photosynthesis and a waste product of cellular respiration
any animal that feeds on flesh
that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction
organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter
all of the surrounding things, conditions, and influences affecting the growth or development of living things.
fuel consisting of the remains of organisms preserved in rocks in the earth's crust with high carbon and hydrogen content
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms
a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
any animal that feeds chiefly on grass and other plants
the watery layer of the earth's surface
energy in the form of moving waves of light
colorless, odorless, flammable gas present in natural gas and formed by the decomposition of plant matter
an animal that feeds on both animal and vegetable substances
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems
p, an organism that can make its own food
pyramid of biomass
Shows the total amount of living material available at each trophic level/ The area at the bottom corresponds to the producer level. It represents the greatest amount of living material.
pyramid of energy
each step represents a transfer of energy (only 10% of energy is transferred from level to level)
pyramid of numbers
representation of the number of individual organisms in each trophic level of an ecosystem
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules
a fluid necessary for the life of most animals and plants
tiny animals that form part of the plankton
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chain