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40 terms

AP Psychology Chapter 7 MIDTERM

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getting information into memory
The process of encoding refers to...
retrieval
The proces of getting information out of memory is called...
long term
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ____ memory.
sutomatic processing
Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as...
rehearsal
In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as...
encoding failure
Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to...
the spacing effect
Jill performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as...
serial position
The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ____ effect.
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acoustic encoding
Superior memory for rap lyrics that include the most rhymes best illustrates the value of...
memory aid
A mnemonic device is a...
the organization of information into meaningful units
Chunking refers to...
iconic
For a fraction of a second after the lightning flash disappeared, Emma retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her experience most clearly illustrates the nature of ____ memory.
echoic
Sounds and words that are not immediately attended to can still be recalled a couple of seconds later because of our ____ memory.
7
Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly __ bits of information.
an increase in a neuron's firing potential
Long term potentiation refers to...
implicit
Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that one can do so best illustrates ____ memory.
explicit
Conscious memory of factual information is called _____ memory.
implicit; explicit
Cerebellum is to ____ memory as hippocampus is to ____ memory.
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recognition
An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?
retrieval cues
Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called...
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deja vu
The eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation is known as...
happy; happy
Information learned while a person is ____ is best recalled when that person is ____.
mood-congruent theory
The association of sadness with memories of negative life events contribute to...
encoding failure
Jay can't remember Joe Vescovo's name because he wasn't paying attention when Joe was formally introduced. Jay's poor memory is best explained in terms of...
retrieval
Julie is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Julie's poor memory most likely results from failure in...
proactive interference
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called...
retroactive interference
After studying biology all afternoon, Bill is having difficulty remembering details of the organic chemistry material that he memorized that morning. His difficulty best illustrates...
motivated forgetting
Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustrates...
repression
A type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-arousing memories are blocked from conscious awareness is known as...
memory construction
Our schemas often influence the form in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to appreciation the importance of...
the misinformation effect
An attorney uses misleading questions in an attempt to distort a court witness' recall of a previously observed crime. This best illustrates...
source amnesia
As a child, Clay dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Clay's false recollection best illustrates...
the misinformation effect
Compared to adults, children are more susceptible to...
serial position effect
At a block party, Dabney is introduced to 8 new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the 1st 3 and last 2 neighbors. Her experience illustrates...
flashbulb
Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they heard the news of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy. This best illustrates ____ memory.
encoding, storage, retrieval
The 3 steps in memory processing are...
speed-reading
What is not recommended as a strategy for improving memory?