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manifest destiny

Americans had the right to expand their landholdings and extend their way of life from the Atlantic to the Pacific; took over the U.S. after the War of 1812 as settlers moved into new territories and roads and canals were constructed across the land

t/f: Industry in America was postponed by the War of 1812.


t/f: The southern states were the only states that threatened nullification of a congressional action.


t/f: Westerners were not affected by the economic depression in 1819.


The Missouri Compromise of 1820 maintained the political balance between what two groups?

slave states and free states

The Mexican-American War began over a dispute involving the territory of what state?


t/f: The six new states admitted between 1816 and 1821 allowed all men to vote.


Missouri Compromise

decision that forbade slavery forever in the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36° 30' parallel; proposed by Henry Clay

The "American System"

proposed by Henry Clay; plan to gain prosperity for the nation through a protective tariff

Samuel Slater

built the first cotton-spinning mill in the United States

Why did southern planters object to the protective tariff of 1816?

because it increased the cost of manufactured goods

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

resulted in an agreement on the border between the United States and Mexico

issues that caused the development of sectionalism

economic, political, and geographical issues

Jefferson Davis

secretary of war in 1853

Stephen Douglas

advocate of popular sovereignty; explained that slavery could only exist if the state legislature passed laws protecting slave property and could, therefore, curtail slavery without banning it outright

John Brown

attacked federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry; planned to lead an army of slaves; became a martyr after this incidence

Robert Hayne

supported the theory of nullification

Santa Anna

general in the Mexican Army

Robert B. Taney

Supreme Court justice who effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise

Stephen Austin

led settlers into Texas

Robert E. Lee

captured John Brown at Harper's Ferry

John C. Calhoun

vice president of the United States

Solomon Northrup

black freedman sold into slavery

What region of the country was most opposed to the annexation of Texas?

the Northeast

dispute over the Oregon boundary

between United States and Great Britain; people urged Americans to fight for the north boundary of Oregon at the 54-40 latitude line

Dred Scott

slave who sued for his freedom in the Supreme Court and lost

What free state was admitted to the Union with the Missouri Compromise?


t/f: The special condition Mexico stipulated for settlers in its territory was loyalty to the American government.


Wilmot Proviso

led to the 1850 Compromise; slavery could never exist in any territory newly acquired by the United States from Mexico

Freeport Doctrine

Stephen Douglas; slavery could be excluded from a territory if the officials did not pass laws to protect it (aka popular sovereignty)

squatter sovereignty

squatters were on both sides of the slavery issue; led to fighting in Kansas

Dred Scott Decision

repealed the Missouri Compromise

Tariff of Abomination

tariff passed in 1828; greatly hated by the South

antebellum period

increasing sectionalism between the North and the South

t/f: The Immigrant Aide Society encouraged black freedmen to return to Africa.


t/f: Daniel Webster was an outspoken advocate of states' rights.


t/f: The major purpose of slave codes was to regulate the owners' treatment of the slaves.


Most blacks deported from the United States relocated to which country?


t/f: Less than 10,000 slaves escaped by the underground railroad between 1830 and 1860.


Where did the abolition movement that ended with the emancipation of slaves start?

in the Northeast

How long were slave owners in Louisiana legally able to work a slave?

for 21 hours a day

Harriet Beecher Stowe

wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin (a series of stories denouncing slavery)

George McDuffie

thought slavery an improvement over life in Africa

Benjamin Franklin

president of antislavery society

Paul Cuffe

took black freedmen back to Africa

Frederick Douglass

published "The North Star"

William Lloyd Garrison

publish abolitionist newspaper called "The Liberator"

3 forms of slave resistance (besides revolts)

self-mutilation, acting sick, running away

Harriet Tubman

most famous "conductor" of the Underground Railroad

Embargo Act

passed by Congress; forbade American ships to transport goods to foreign ports

factors that caused New England ship owners to start spinning mills

power from waterfalls; available cotton; Embargo Act; available labor


doctrine first introduced by Jefferson and Madison in 1798; reintroduced by Calhoun and Hayne in 1928

3 components of the Missouri Compromise

admit Missouri as a slave state; admit Maine as a free state; forbid slavery north of the 36-30 in the Louisiana Purchase

Alabama was admitted as a...

slave state

Tallmadge Amendment

James Tallmadge; slavery was forbidden in the new state of Missouri; children of slaves would be free when they reached 25 years of age

t/f: Sam Houston accepted Mexico's offer of land in Texas and led settlers into the state to begin a new life.


What was required of people who wanted to settle in Texas before the Mexican Revolution?

they had to declare they would become loyal Spanish subjects

The battle of the Alamo was a...


Treaty of 1846

fixed the northern Oregon boundary at the 49th parallel

Why was the addition of California so desirable?

because it contained two of three natural ports on the Pacific coast; a rich, fertile central valley and a moderate, year-round climate

When did Mexico break diplomatic relations with the United States?

when Texas became a state

t/f: The conflict over the disputed territory between Texas and Mexico was because Texas claimed all the land leading up to the Rio Grande river, and the Mexican government claimed all the land leading up to the Nueces River.


When did the Mexican War begin?


John C. Fremont

led troops in California against Mexico

Who did not agree with the Mexican War?

the Northeast

1850 Compromise

Henry Clay, U.S. senator from Kentucky; South's main concession to the North was the acceptance of popular sovereignty in the New Mexico and Utah territories

the starting point of the transcontinental railroad

Chicago, Illinois

Kansas-Nebraska Act

introduced by Stephen Douglas

"Bleeding Kansas"

named earned by the Kansas territory because the bitter confrontations over the issue of slavery

Senator Sumner

attacked by Representative Brook after his speech in favor of the free-soil constitution in Kansas

t/f: Many northerners became upset over the adoption of a strict fugitive slave law.


Abraham Lincoln

claimed that a divided nation could not stand; his view was that the nation would eventually be either completely free or completely slave; did not imply interference with the status of slavery but opposed the extension of slavery

t/f: In areas where crops were most abundant, slave labor was cheaper, and because slaves were easily replaced, they were often treated very poorly.


Eli Whitney

invented the cotton gin

Which state was the only state that had a law limiting the slave workday?


John Quincy Adams

defended the revolt led by Joseph Cinque with the argument that every human has the inherent right to freedom

3 leaders of well-known slave revolts

Nat Turner, Gabriel Posser, Denmark Vesey

5 areas black were encouraged to immigrate to

Canada, Haiti, Mexico, South America, the Western Frontier

t/f: During the Antebellum period, the slave relocation movement was a huge success. Freedmen were happy to leave America for a fresh start.


Denmark Vesey

carpenter from South Carolina who planned a slave revolt

Joseph Cinque

his case was heard by the Supreme Court and defended by John Quincy Adams

Nat Turner

led a slave revolt in which over a hundred people were killed


Spanish slave ship taken over by the slaves it was transporting

6 leaders of the abolitionist movement

William Lloyd Garrison, Theodore Weld, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Rush

Underground Railroad

system of escape routes and hiding places for runaway slaves


longtime opponents of slavery; opened their homes to runaways

t/f: It was estimated that 50,000 slaves escaped by the underground railroad between 1830 and 1860.


George Fitzhugh

"Cannibals All!" or "Slaves Without Masters"

William Harper

South Carolina Nullification Ordinance of 1832

William Grayson

"The Hireling and the Slave"

Thomas R. Dew

said southern owners were virtuous and human

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