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71 terms

The Art of Public Speaking. SPH 131 Final exam

SPH 131 vocabulary for last exam
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Small Group
A collection of three to twelve people that assemble for a specific purpose.
implied leader
A group member to whom other members defer because of her or his rank, expertise, or other quality.
emergent leader
A group member who emerges as a leader during the group's deliberations.
designated leader
A person who is elected or appointed as leader when the group is formed.
procedural needs
Routine 'housekeeping' actions necessary for the efficient conduct of business in a small group.
task needs
Substantive actions necessary to help a small group complete its assigned task.
maintenance needs
Communicative actions necessary to maintain interpersonal relations in a small group.
hidden agenda
A set of unstated individual goals that may conflict with the goals of the group as a whole.
oral report
A speech presenting the findings, conclusions, decisions, etc., of a small group.
symposium
A public presentation in which several people present prepared speeches on different aspects of the same topic.
panel discussion
A structured conversation on a given topic among several people in front of an audience.
audience-centeredness
Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation.
identification
A process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences.
egocentrism
The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being.
fixed-alternative questions
Questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternatives.
either-or
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
bandwagon
A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
slippery slope
A fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
denotative meaning
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.
connotative meaning
The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.
concrete words
Words that refer to tangible objects
abstract words
Words that refer to ideas or concepts.
simile
An explicit comparison, introduced with the word 'like' or 'as,' between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
metaphor
An implicit comparison, not introduced with the word 'like' or 'as,' between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
parallelism
The similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences.
repetition
Reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences.
alliteration
Repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words.
antithesis
The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.
generic "he"
The use of 'he' to refer to both women and men.
pronunciation
The accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language
articulation
The physical production of particular speech sounds.
dialect
A variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.
kinesics
The study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication.
question and answer session
....
hearing
The vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain.
listening
Paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear
ethos
The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.
logos
The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.
pathos
The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.
pandering
Gratify or indulge
scale questions
Questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers.
open-ended questions
Questions that allow respondents to answer however they want
persuasion
A means of making someone to do or believe something; an argument.
question of fact
A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion.
question of value
A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
question of policy
A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.
burden of proof
The obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary.
credibility
The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
reasoning from specific instances
Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion
reasoning from principle
Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
causal reasoning
Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
analogical reasoning
Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
red herring
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
ad hominem
A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
appreciative listening
Listening for pleasure or enjoyment.
empathic listening
Listening to provide emotional support for a speaker.
comprehensive listening
Listening to understand the message of a speaker.
critical listening
Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it.
interdependence
dependence between two or more people,
cohesion
The action or fact of forming a united whole.
primary tension
Experience of tension that individual group members feel during the early stages of group evolution or at the beginning of a meeting
secondary tension
Discomfort that a group experiences, or that is experienced by individual group members, beyond the tolerance threshold for tension.
groupthink
The practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility
risky shift
Group polarization is the tendency of people to make decisions that are more extreme when they are in a group,
leaderless group
no leader.
autocratic
Taking no account of other people's wishes or opinions; domineering
democratic
Favoring or characterized by social equality; egalitarian
laissez-faire
individualism:
extemporaneous
Spoken or done without preparation
impromptu
Done without being planned, organized, or rehearsed
memorized
Commit to memory; learn by hear