A group member to whom other members defer because of her or his rank, expertise, or other quality.
Routine 'housekeeping' actions necessary for the efficient conduct of business in a small group.
Communicative actions necessary to maintain interpersonal relations in a small group.
A set of unstated individual goals that may conflict with the goals of the group as a whole.
A public presentation in which several people present prepared speeches on different aspects of the same topic.
A structured conversation on a given topic among several people in front of an audience.
Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation.
A process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences.
The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being.
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
A fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.
An explicit comparison, introduced with the word 'like' or 'as,' between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
An implicit comparison, not introduced with the word 'like' or 'as,' between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
Reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences.
The vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain.
The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.
The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.
question of value
A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
question of policy
A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.
burden of proof
The obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary.
reasoning from specific instances
Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion
Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
Experience of tension that individual group members feel during the early stages of group evolution or at the beginning of a meeting
Discomfort that a group experiences, or that is experienced by individual group members, beyond the tolerance threshold for tension.
The practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility
Group polarization is the tendency of people to make decisions that are more extreme when they are in a group,