139 terms

Mammalogy Final exam study guide

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Term referring to possessing exactly two sets of teeth during a life-time
diphydont
Which of these is not a ear ossicle?
Quadrate
articular
Stapes
angular
Articular
Vertebrate class possessing only the left aortic arch
Mammalia
mammary glands are thought to have evolved from this type of gland
sweat
Besides mammals, two occipital condyles are found in which group?
Amphibia
The premaxillary bone contains which category of teeth?
incisors
Carnassial teeth occur in which group of mammals
carnivores
T/F In mammals, the pattern of skull and skeleton evolution has been toward a reduction in the number of bones
T
In mammals this structure aids in enhancing night vision
tapetum lucidium
Animals with longer appendages are found in _________ climates
warmer
Insulation is a result of this type of hair
underhair
T/F Inclusive fitness refers to sacrificing oneself to save a group of individuals related to oneself
T
The first mammals appeared in which era
Mesozoic
Greatest number of endemic mammalian families occur in this zoo-geographic zone
Australian
Mammals evolved from the reptilian order
Synapsidia
The two bones involved in mammalian jaw articulation
dentary squamosal
The two bones involved in reptilian jaw articulation
Quadrate articular
Bone growth in mammals is restricted due the addition of the _____________________ region
epiphysis
The specialized muscle that assists mammals with breathing
diaphragm
The period in which most modern mammal species are thought to have evolved
Quaternary
The oil producing gland in mammals
sebacous
Who established the museum of comparative zoology and offered the first formal training in mammalogy in the U.S.?
Agassiz
Two men sent by Jefferson to survey the area that later was to become the western US
Lewis and Clark
Who organized the pacific railroad surveys
Baird
Who conducted the biological survey of Texas
Bailey
Who was responsible for the DEOM and the Bureau of Biological Surveys
Merriam
Nearly all North American mammalogists can trace their academic ancestry back to
Merriam and Grinnel
Which rules states that animals in the northern portion of a species range will be larger than those in the southern portion
Bergmann's
Type of thermoregulation in ammals
Homeothermy
Type of locomotion that includes a large hindfoot and tail and a hopping motion
saltatorial
Type of adaptation that some mammals use to transport food back to a nest
cheek pouches
term describing a taxon that has adapted and evolved to live in a specialized habitat resulting in a small geographic distribution
endemic
dispersal models with highest probability of failure
sweepstakes
A phenetic classification is based on similarities or differences in characters, whereas a __________ classification methodology is based on shared derived characters
Phylogenetic
Differences between a Synapsid and present day mammal
Mammals:
single element in lower jaw
ribless lumbar
determinant growth
Synapsids:
5 elements in lower jaw
ribbed lumbar
indeterminant growth
Describe behavioral adaptations to cold
Torper/hibernation
use of dens/warrens
use of subnivean zones
Describe physiological adaptations to cold temperatures
thicker hair
larger body size
glands which lower freezing point
shorter limbs
Discuss variation in mammalian teeth
Typically thecodont, heterodont and diphydont composed of incisors, canines, premolars and molars
Discuss three different types of mammalian foot- think locomotion
Plantigrade: carpels and tarsals on surface of ground
Digitigrade: phlanges on surface
Unguligrade: nails on surface, fusion of metacarpels and metatarsals
This superorder contains mice and pikas
Glires
This order has a cloaca and a diagnostic second pair of peg-like incisors
Lagomorpha
Aquatic order that has extremely dense bones, the also graze on aquatic vegetation
Sirenia
Order possessing molarized premolars and plane of symmetry passing directly through the 3rd digit
Perissodactyla
Carnivore suborder containing weasels, dogs, seals, and bears
Caniformia
Digitigrade locomotion and carnassial teeth are special adaptations by members of this order
Carnivora
This Order is best characterized by vestigial hindlimbs and its ability to collapse their lungs
Cetacea
Rodent suborder whose angular process is in line with a line drawn through molars and incisors
Sciurimorpha
This order contained the largest known terrestrial mammal (now extinct)
Perissodactyla
One of the least species order of mammals, it is nearly hairless and has tentacles on its snout
Tublidentata
Family known as the earless seals, hindflipper is useless on land
Phocidae
Carnivore family with the best developed scent glands, used to be in Mustelidae
Mephitidae
Carnivore family with elongated rostrum for a crushing/ripping feeding strategy; several species hunt in packs
Canidae
Feliformes family that is long bodied and mustelid-like but occurs in Ethiopian and Oriental region
Herpestidae
Feliformes family in which the female genitalia evolved to resemble male genitalia; extreme crushing power with jaws
Hyaenidae
Carnivore family (aquatic) upper canine modified into tusk
Odobenidae
Members of this terrestrial carnivore family possess the fewest number of teeth
Felidae
Most speciose family in Lagomorpha
Leporidae
Most primitive living family of rodents
Aplodontidae
One of two families of gliding rodents
Anomaluridae
Most specious family of mammals
Muridae
Rodent family that can regenerate its tail
Gliridae
Members of this old world rodent family are saltatorial and adapated to an arid lifestyle but do not have cheek pouches
Dipodidae
Nearctic rodent family that is protrogomorphous and represents the primitive body-plan for rodents
Aplodontidae
Fossorial rodent family that lives in a eusocial system and has a protrogomorphous muscle pattern
Bathyergidae
Histricognathid rodent family imported from South America for fur and controlling aquatic vegetation
Myocastoridae
Members of this rodent family are fossorial, have cheek pouches and a dental formula of 1/1, 0/0, 1/1, 3/3
Geomyidae
The right whale belongs to this family
Balaenidae
Most specious family of Cetaceans
Delphinidae
Cetacean family with large body size and numerous through-grooves
Balenopteridae
Cetacean family containing the largest living mammal
Balenopteridae
Family containing Flipper and Shamoo and most have a melon shaped head
Delphinidae
Some members of this Cetacean family have a single tooth that is modified into a large tusk
Monodontidae
This Cetacean family has spade like teeth
Phocoenidae
This Cetacean family has a spermatoceti organ
Phseteridae
Perissodactyla family with stripped feet and a nuchal ligament
Equidae
Perissodactyla family that is pig-like, has short proboscis and is found in the Neotropics and Oriental regions
Tapiridae
Perissodactyla family that has a horn, armor, and graviportal locomotion
Rhinoceatidae
Semi-aquatic family in the suborder Suiformes
Hippopotamidae
Most speciose family in the order Artiodactyla
Bovidae
Discuss the morphological convergences between some rodent families
Hystricidae and Erethizontidae- quills
Bathyergidae and Splacididae- Fossorial lifestyle
Geomyidae and Ctenomyidae- Fossorial lifestyle
Heteromyidae and Dipodidae- Saltorial locomotion
Draw a Phylogenetic tree of the mammal orders thought to have evolved from the common ancestor Condylarthra
Cetacea
artiodactyla
perissodactyla
Tubulidentata
Hyracoidea
Sirenia
Proboscidea
Paenungulata
Practice of feeding on ants and termites
Myrmecophagy
fusion on digits as seen in some marsupials
syndactyly
fusion of lumbar vertebrae in animals such as armadillos
xenathrale
single common opening for urogential, digestive and reproductive tracts
cloaca
Only order of metatherians to colonize North America
Didelphimorphia
Order of mammals possessing epipubic bone
Monotremata
Primitive number of incisors is thought to occur in this order
Didelphimorphia
One of the four Metatherian orders to occur in Australia
Notoryctemorphia
ONly extant order of Eutherian mammals edemic to western hemisphere
Pilosa
Onychonyteris finney from WY is the oldest known fossil of this order
Chiroptera
One of the two monotreme families that lack the alispheonid bone
Tachyglossidae
Family in the Soricomorpha that is fossorial
Talpidae
Most speciose family of Soricomorpha, most have pigmented teeth
Soricidae
Only non-marsupial, non-bat, and not rodent order to possess a patagium, also has comb-like lower incisors
Dermoptera
Family containing the tree shrews- have recurved claws, comble like incisors, and a postorbital process
Tupaiidae
Neotropical primate family with a mane or tuft of hair around the face
Cebidae
Family of Neotropical marsupials that is shrew-like and has serrated premolars
Caenolestidae
Family of Australian marsupials that contains the greatest diversity in terms of adaptations or body plans
Dasyuridae
Infraorder that contains the New world primates
Simiiformes
Name two of the three extant orders of Eutherian mammals restricted to the western hemisphere
Pilosa and Microbiotherimorphia
Suborder containing the lemurs
Strepsirrhini
Superorder contains Dermoptera and Chiroptera among others
Archonta
Pilosa family that is myrmecophagic, has no teeth, no scales or armor, and has an elongated skull
myremecophagidae
Family that possesses cornified scales, is myrmecophagic, has no teeth, and has a tongue attached to its ribs
Manidae
Neotropical and Nearctic bat family exhibiting the most diverse feeding adaptations and specialization
Phyllostomidae
A bat family found only in Thailand and contains the smallest bat species
Craseonycteridae
Family of Yinpterochiroptera that can echolocate using tongue clicks
Pteropodidae
Family of Yinpterochiroptera that echolocates through its nose
Rhinolophidae
Ethiopian bat family that has a sucker-like structure on its foot
Myzopodidae
Neotropical bat family that has a disc-wing
Thyropteridae
Neotropical bat family that has a sac-like structure on wing
Emballonuridae
Bat family containing the most number of species
Vespertilionidae
Neotropical bat family with adaptations for fishing
Noctilionidae
Eutherian family has venomous saliva that is used to kill prey
Solenodontidae
Metatherian occurs in Lubbock, tX
Didelphidae
Cosmo Yangochiroptera (3)
Emballonuridae
Vespertilionidae
Molossidae
Old World Yangochiroptera (3)
Nycteridae
Mystacinidae
Myzopodidae
New World Yangochiroptera (6)
Phyllostomidae
Natalidae
Mormoopidae
Thyropteridae
Noctilionidae
Furipteridae
Yinpterochiroptera (6)
Pteropodidae
Rhinolophidae
Rhinopomatidae
Hipposideridae
Megadermatidae
Craseonycteridae
List members of superorder Archonta
Scandentia
Dermoptera
Primates
Chiroptera
Common names of members of Archonta
tree shrews
flying lemurs
apes monkeys lemurs
bats
Metatherian characters
More teeth
marsupium
altricial
delayed implantation
bifurcated reproductive system
older evolutionary history
Eutherian characters
Less teeth
No marsupium
precocial
direct implantation
single reproductive structures
true placenta
slightly younger evolution history
Island equilibrium
treat endangered species in terms of island biogeography
Rule of 50
after 100 generations, 36% of the original genetic variation
Rule of 500
Minimum population size for maintaining original variation
3 success stories of con bio
Speke's gazelle
Perre David's deer
big horn sheep
Extinction
end of a phyletic lineage without replacement
Natural extinction
poorly adapted, local climatic change, low breeding over a couple of years
Mass extinction
double the natural rate
5 types of extinction
Mass
Phyletic groups
lower groups
species
species in part of its range
Alvarez Hypothesis
Mass extinction are associated with impact of ET objects
Possible reasons for current increase in extinction rate
Habitat destruction
Human population
Illegal demand
Importation of exotics and domestics
4 reasons to recognize species
Independent evolutionary fate
Measure of biodiversity and conservation
Genetic source for gene therapy
Only natural taxon
Genetic Species Concept
Group of genetically compatible interbreeding natural populations that is genetically isolated from other such groups
Genetic isolation ensures?
Integrity of two gene pools
Examine this graph No answer needed
Biological Species Concept
Group of interbreeding populations that is reproductively and/or genetically isolated from other such groups
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