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Psychology final exam
Terms in this set (51)
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change across the life span
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
The process that shuts down unused neural connections and strengthens others
According to Piaget, a cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information
Understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen
Development is a much more continuous process than distinct stages
What is the current argument against Piaget's theory of development?
Researched and created theories supporting human attachment .
What did John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth do for field of Psychology?
proposed famous crisis stages that directed related to our relationships with people and attitudes on life. For example, trust verses mistrust stage being based on our early relationship with our caregivers. This can create a lifelong opinion regarding whether we feel we can trust other people or not.
According to Kohlberg's moral development theory, the stage in which correct behavior is defined by whatever the individual believes to be in his or her best interest without further regard for the well-being of others
focuses on upholding the laws and social rule simply because they are laws but they do not reflect the individual moral convictions and beliefs
actions are judged right because they come from the individual's basic ethical principles
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies
mental process of sorting, identifying, and arranging raw sensory data into meaningful patterns.
The minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound, taste or odor
Known as the law of human perception, this law expresses how much more needs to be added in quality or intensity of the stimulus to be able to tell that something has been added.
refers to how our brain makes use of information that has already been brought into the brain by one or more of the sensory systems.
The process of changing physical energy into electrical signals (neural impulses) that can make their way to the brain
sensory neurons change their level of sensitivity to a constant stimulus over time.
Rods & Cones
The photoreceptors in human eyes
the auditory portion of the inner ear. It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth that uses tiny hairs to interpret sounds
The sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement
The process of the simultaneous processing of information on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
Our capacity to include (filter in or focus on) a specific object among multiple stimuli
our body's internal 24-hour clock. It helps us stay awake during the day and fall asleep at night as well as govern our internal body temperature
stage of sleep is characterized by a high level of brain activity. During this stage vivid dreams commonly occur.
dreaming represents the brain's efforts to integrate unrelated bursts of activity during sleep and make sense of it.
Insomnia, sleep apnea, and sleepwalking
Most common sleep disorders
develops in a person who requires an increase in dosage of a certain drug in order to achieve the same effects.
Reabsorption of neurotransmitters gets blocked, causing neurotransmitters to remain stuck in the synapse. For example, Stimulants, such as cocaine and crack, produce a euphoric rush by blocking the reabsorption of dopamine back into the brain cells.
affect the neurotransmitters within the brain. These drugs affect behavior and Perception by them altering the neural activity in the brain.
the ability to store and retrieve information over time.
Serial Position Effect
when recalling a list of words, you are likely to remember the beginning and end of list AND have the greatest difficulty with those in the middle
retention independent of conscious recollection
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
is a form of amnesia where someone will be unable to recall events that occurred before the onset of amnesia. People experience disruptions of older memories (they were stored as long-term memory)
The process of getting information of memory storage is called
is the part of the brain that is involved in memory forming, organizing, and storing.
occurs when one memory interferes with another, impairing memory. Some psychologists believe interference causes forgetting. Studying before sleep may help prevent this.
Form of associative learning. Pavlov.
Form of associative learning. BF Skinner. Reinforcement increases a behavior, while punishment decreases a behavior.
A response that leads to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
Influencing one's behavior toward a desired one through reinforcers
learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. Often uses by teachers, coaches, and parents.
one of the simplest and most common forms of learning. It allows people to "tune out" non-essential stimuli and focus on the things that really demand attention.
learning that occurs without awareness or conscious effort or intention. Learning may come from social cues, rewards, or observations.
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