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FD SC 105 Final Exam
Terms in this set (68)
Fermentation of fruits and vegetables can be performed by ________, ________, and ___________.
yeast, bacteria, and molds
Although not all highly-processed foods are unhealthy, many such as ___________ are a significant source of additional sugar and fat.
Certain food preservation methods, such as __________________, have been used since ancient times. Others, such as __________________, are the result of more recent technological developments.
Hunger is not having eaten anything, _____ _______ is limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways
_____ is the process where carbohydrates are converted to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Percent of households in the US that are food insecure
One example of a process used in food production is pasteurization. Pasteurization, developed by Louis Pasteur, is a process that...
uses controlled heat to the extend shelf-life of liquid foods.
While food processing can be very useful in terms of providing more convenient foods, it can also present a challenge in terms of the ______________.
packaging waste generated
____ _____ is the total annual market value for all purchases of domestically produced foods by persons living in the U.S. (only 17% goes toward the actual food production)
Minimally processed foods are items that...
Are not substantially changed from their raw form.
The uses for food irradiation are to ______ _____ and ______ ______.
kill microorganism, delay ripening
Food preservation was an important advancement for early humans because it....
save food for later use.
Fermenting plant foods can have a variety of benefits, including improved __________, _______, ________, and _________.
nutrition, digestibility, shelf-life, and safety
In terms of food processing, what do enrichment and fortification refer to?
restoring or raising nutrient levels in foods
What is the sugar substitute Aspartame composed of?
As a general rule, foods past their label date are safe to consume, however, there is one area of food safety that is an exception to this generalization. It is important to follow date labels for what type of foods?
Ready to eat foods (deli meats) due to Listeria
True or false: Colors are sometimes added to foods to extends shelf life.
What is are examples of naturally occurring, sweet molecule that are an alternative to sugar?
Sugar Alcohols and Stevia
What are the substances that are not intended to be in food but may come into contact with it during normal processing and handling?
indirect food additives (ex. Paper from packaging)
Food color additives come in two classes, certified and exempt. Certified comes from _____ sources and exempt come from ________ sources.
Fiber and Starch are examples of _______ carbs
Sugar is a ______ carb
What did tomato experiment teach us?
People use their eyes to count calories and not their stomachs
What did popcorn experiment teach us?
We overeat foods we have (not necessarily what we want)
_________ consists of three senses, taste, aroma, and touch
True/False: The source of the food is the main contributing factor to foodborne illnesses.
3 types of foodborne pathogens
virus, bacteria, parasite
Two government agencies that keep food safe are ______ for meat/poultry and _____ or processed foods
All non-GRAS food additives must be approved by the FDA before they can be used in food. Therefore, in moderation, alternative sweeteners are safe for consumption with what specific exception?
Aspartame and individuals with PKU
What does the "best if used by" date mean?
an estimate of the date after which food will no longer be at its highest quality
Foods and drinks that with labels like "light", "sugar-free", or "reduced calorie" typically contain _________ ________.
True or False: Natural (exempt) food colors do NOT have to appear on the food label.
False: All ingredients in a food must appear on the label.
True/False: Children's allergies can be outgrown.
True: This can (e.g. for soy, milk, and egg) but does not always happen.
Skin Prick Test, Diet Diary, Elimination Diet, and Personal History are diagnostic tests in diagnosis for ______ ________.
The more muscle in your body, the more _________ you burn.
Proteins are composed of chains of _______ acids.
According to the NIH, a food allergy is the body's adverse reaction to a particular food specifically resulting in production of the ___________ antibody by the immune system.
If you're vegetarian and therefore have more limited dietary protein options, it can still be easy to get healthy protein in your diet if you eat: ______ and _______, for example.
True or False: Fat substitutes can be used to either partially or completely replace the fat in certain foods.
True: Depending on the fat substitute, it can either partially or completely replace the fat.
Nutrition Facts Panel changes, education efforts, food reformulation, and state and local governments have added to the decrease in _____ ______ consumption in the U.S.
Examples of a plant based fat that is high in saturated fat. (exceptions)
Coconut Oil and Palm OIl
Used to partially replace the mouth feel and other sensory properties that fat adds to food.
Used to completely replace fat in a food's formulation
Fats that often come from animal products
Fats that often come from plants
Olestra (olean) is made from __________ and ___________
sucrose, fatty acids
Omega 6 fats are _______.
What on a food's label indicates that the food might contain trans fats?
partially hydrogenated oil
Four main types of fat substitutes
Fat-based, protein-based, polysaccharide-based, and carbohydrate-based
What entity traditionally served as the go between for food processors/manufacturers and retailers?
Aside from logistics, one of the important challenges presented by mass catering (as highlighted by the hotel, hospital, and airline examples from the reading) is maintaining ______________.
The term "food miles" refers to
the distance a particular food travels to get to the consumer
Even though New Zealand is very far away, transporting milk from there to England can be more energy efficient than producing milk in England because
of how the cows are raised in New Zealand versus in England.
3 main contributors to fast food's success as an industry in the U.S.
1) spending less time eating, (2) desiring reliable, family-friendly food, and (3) eat any time of the day either at the establishment or on-the-go.
What is one barrier to large food retailers (such as Walmart) selling local foods?
Individual local farms don't produce enough volume.
How does a discount food store compare to a traditional food retailer (e.g. grocery store or supermarket)?
Discounters sell a more limited array of products than traditional retailers sell.
Is this statement true: "Local food is synonymous with environmentally sustainable food."
It depends on the local radius (how wide a range is considered local).
It is estimated that food waste costs the average American $___________ per year.
Which option BEST completes this sentence "Phytochemicals can be..."
the basis for some medicines
The term "antioxidants" refers to a group of chemical compounds that behave in a ____way
not free-radical or interchangeable (they defend the body from harmful free radicals that can destroy cells)
In contrast to early thinking about the potential benefits of antioxidants, some studies have shown that taking antioxidant supplements...
Is associated with increased cancer risk
Though the FDA has recommendations available for many supplements, they do not test supplements for safety prior to sale. What is an example of a third party testing service that supplement manufacturers can use?
True/False: Studies of antioxidants have indisputably shown that their consumption prevents cancer.
False: they may help prevent age-related macular degeneration
Some antioxidants are known vitamins, for example ___.
In addition to talking to your doctor, if you think you've had an adverse reaction to a supplement what else should you do?
Report it to the FDA
Dietary antioxidants include which of the following? (4)
Manganese, Selenium, Beta-carotene, Vitamin C
Free radicals can damage the body by... (4 things)
Damaging cell membranes, Altering your DNA's code, Taking electrons from other molecules, Contributing to atherosclerosis
Dietary supplements can sometimes interact with other supplements, medicines, and/or foods a person takes and lead to problems. Which of the following is an example of this?
Using St John's Wort may decrease the effectiveness of medicines like antidepressants
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