American Government 1st Semester Final
Terms in this set (171)
institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies.
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
one who holds both rights and responsibilities in a state.
all of the things a government decides to do.
the power to make laws and to frame public policies.
the power to execute, enforce, and administer laws.
the power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes.
Division of Powers
basic principle of federalism; the constitutional provisions by which governmental powers are divided on a geographic basis.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.).
supreme authority rests with the people.
a government ruled by a few powerful people.
a system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual.
having absolute authority in a certain realm.
a form of government in which powers are divided between a central government and several local governments.
a centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single, central agency.
government is restricted in what it can do and every individual has certain rights.
government should serve the will of the people.
an administrative agency decision-making, notice of charges or potential rule making coupled with opportunity to appear, present evidence, and confront witnesses if warranted.
a charter of liberty and political rights obtained from King John of England by his rebellious barons at Runnymede in 1215.
English Bill of Rights
document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament.
all political power resides in the people.
Articles of Confederation
first governing document of US - created a WEAK central government; issues with trade - different currencies in each state, tariffs on goods traded between states.
it called for a bicameral legislature, in which the number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state.
New Jersey Plan
it called for a unicameral legislature, in which every state received one vote.
congress composed of two houses: senate and house of reps.
to make it fair for both sides. 3/5 of the slaves in a state would be counted as population and taxes.
a term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
a group who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. They opposed a strong central government (tyranny) and supported states' rights. "I smell a rat!"
delegated to the national government in words.
powers granted to the national government in the government.
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states.
not expressly stated in the Constitution, but are reasonably suggested. anything necessary to make the expressed powers happen.
powers that belong to the National Government because it is the national government of a sovereign state in the world community.
those powers that can be exercised by the National Government alone.
powers shared by the state and federal governments.
Constitution is the supreme law of the land.
a system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional governments.
range of political views.
loyalty to a political cause or party.
supported by two political parties.
a combination, union, or merger for some specific purpose.
largest number of votes cast for the office.
all of the people entitled to vote in a given election.
a group or clique within a larger group, party, or government.
parties based on a particular set of beliefs, a comprehensive view of social, economic, and political matters.
parties that concentrate on only one public policy matter.
the right to vote.
a requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote.
list of all registered voters in each precinct.
process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
prior approval by the justice department of changes to or new election laws in certain states.
the phenomenon by which voters cast fewer votes for offices listed toward the bottom of the ballot.
voting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same election.
practice of voting for candidates of only one party in an election.
congressional election that occurs between presidential election years.
an election held to choose which candidate will hold office.
a meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.
party delegates decide who will run for president.
a primary election in which each voter may vote for candidates from both parties.
crossover between parties.
a primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place.
declared members can vote.
A primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote.
a second primary election held when no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first primary.
the location where voting is carried out.
Political Action Committee
A committee set up by a corporation or interest group to raise and funnels money to political candidates. Donation amounts to PACs are limited by FECA rules (hard money).
the distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and policy issues.
forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people.
Public Opinion Poll
a survey in which individuals are asked to answer questions about a particular issue or person.
an authoritative command, formal order, authorization; to issue such an order.
nonbinding vote used to determine the views of a small cross section of voters.
issues considered most significant by government officials.
a collection of people who share certain views on public matters and work to shape public policy to their benefit.
issues and events that concern the people at large.
nonprofit organization that promotes the interests of a particular industry.
an organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members.
process by which organized interests attempt to affect the decision and actions of public officials.
pressure from members beginning at a very basic level.
a legislature consisting of two parts, or houses.
an officeholder who is seeking reelection.
a person appointed or elected to represent others
a formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
an official who is expected to vote independently based on his or her judgment of the circumstances; one interpretation of the role of the legislator.
devoted to or biased in support of a party, group, or cause.
The Other Expressed Powers
Foreign Policy & Domestic Policy.
The Other Implied Powers
Liberal Construction, Strict Construction, Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause), Expressed Powers.
the power of Congress to regulate interstate and foreign trade.
allows the govt to take property for public use but also requires the govt to provide just compensation for that property.
to accuse government officials of misconduct in office.
notice ordering someone to appear in court.
to find not guilty of a fault or crime.
Speaker of the House
presides and keeps order, chair sessions, allows members to speak, interprets and applies the rules, refers bills to committee, puts motions to a vote, names members of select committees, & signs all bills and resolutions passed by the House.
President of the Senate
presides, VP, cannot speak or debate on Senate floor, & may vote only to break tie.
Majority & Minority Leader
both in House of Reps and Senate, Controls order to business on the floor, & carries out decisions of party's caucus.
Majority & Minority Whips
liaison between party leaders and members, make sure party members are present for important votes, & influence party members to vote with leaders.
head standing committee, have majority say in which bills will consider, & manage debate and steer passage on the floor.
A meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy. Called a conference by the Republicans.
Committees In Congress
-20 in house
-16 in state
-decides fate of most bills
-divided into subcommittees
-sets conditions of bills to be considered
-set up for a special purpose
-speaker or pres. of senate appoints members
-investigate current issue
-members of both houses
-investigate and issue reports
-resolves differences between house and senate bills
-produce compromise that both houses will accept
a measure approved by both houses of Congress and signed by the president
chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a legislature.
a veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
resolutions-adopted by both houses of legislature assembly that does not require the signature of the chief executive and that does not have the force of law.
a written motion adopted by a deliberate body.
a process that attempts to classify entities into a small number of categories.
means of bringing a bill out of committee and to the floor for consideration without a report from the committee and usually without cooperation of the leadership.
the minimum number of voting members that must be in attendance at a meeting of an organization for that meeting to be regularly constituted.
to have the bill in its final form.
Chief of State
the president as ceremonial head of the United States.
president oversees the administrative work in the executive branch.
decides how the laws of the US are to be enforced and choosing officials and advisors to help run the Executive Branch.
the order in which officials fill the office of president in case of a vacancy. (1. Vice President 2. Speaker of the House 3. President Pro-Tempore of the Senate 4. Secretary of State 5. Secretary of Treasury)
a group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
an election by which voters choose convention delegates committed to voting for a certain candidate.
the candidate who won the preference vote automatically won the support of all delegates chosen at the primary.
an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
those voters who have not yet decided which candidate they will support at the start of the campaign and who are open to persuasion by either side.
competitive state where neither party holds an overwhelming edge.
Direct Popular Election
proposal to do away with the electoral college and allow the people to vote directly for President and Vice President.
proposal by which each presidential candidate would receive the same share of a state's electoral vote as he or she received in the state's popular vote.
National Popular Vote
proposal for electing the President whereby each State's eletion laws would provide for all of the State's electoral votes to be awarded to the winner of the national popular vote and enter into an interstate compact agreeing to elect the President by national popular vote.
Article II of the Constitution. Establishes the presidency and gives the executive power of the Federal Government to the President.
President is seen as emperor taking strong actions without consulting Congress or seeking its approval.
a rule issued by the president that has the force of law.
a formal agreement between the U.S. president and the leaders of other nations that does not require Senate approval.
an executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature.
mercy or leniency granted to an offender by a chief executive.
a general pardon for an offense against a government; in general, any act of forgiveness or absolution.
Dual Court System
a court system made up of both federal and state courts. (supreme court)
the lower federal courts, beneath the Supreme Court. (constitutional courts, the special courts)
authority of only federal courts to hear and decide cases.
authority for both state and federal courts to hear and decide cases.
the jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These are the courts that determine the facts about a case. "the court of first instance"
authority of court to review a decision of a lower court or administrative agency. "case on appeal"
a set of ideas that shape how a judge or lawyer interprets the law and the Constitution. (based on judicial restraint, original intent of the Framers, judicial precedent for later cases).
The Supreme Court
highest court in the US.
Bill of Rights
a formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
constitutional freedoms guaranteed to all citizens
a federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Due Process Clause
14th amendment clause stating that no state may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Free Exercise Clause
a First Amendment provision that prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion.
clause in the First Amendment that says the government may not establish an official religion.
the three-part test for Establishment Clause cases that a law must pass before it is declared constitutional: it must have a secular purpose; it must neither advance nor inhibit religion; and it must not cause excessive entanglement with religion.
false and malicious use of the printed word.
false and malicious use of the spoken word.
Sedition (Seditious Speech)
advocating or urging conduct to overthrow the government by force to disrupt its activities.
an offensive or indecent word or phrase.
an act that conveys a political message.
a form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
Procedural Due Process
how the government acts (methods).
Substantive Due Process
what of government action (sunshine, policies).
authority of each state to act to protect and promote the public health , safety, morals and general welfare.
obligatory; that must be done.
a court order allowing law enforcement officers to search a suspect's home or business and take specific items as evidence.
being forced into labor against your will.
Writs of Assistance
it was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
evidence obtained illegally by the police cannot be used at the trial...however some "tainted evidence" can still be used.
Knock and Announce Violation
police announce their presence before serving a warrant.
faulty warrants are okay as long as you have good faith and acted within its scope.
evidence can be used when searching the wrong area.
Bill of Attainder
a law that punishes a person accused of a crime without a trial or a fair hearing in court.
being tried twice for the same crime.
a formal charge by a grand jury.
the constitutional rights which police must read to a suspect before questioning can occur.
ethnic groups lost their distinctive culture through the domination of newly expanding empires.
the doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that African Americans could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities.
laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites.
a United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities.
a legal process to obtain citizenship.
the loss of citizenship through fraud or deception during the naturalization process.