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Terms and definitions for Ch.38- Understanding Medical Surgical Book

adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)

increases secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex


increases uses of fats and excess amino acids for energy, increases gluconeogenesis, increases use of glucose, has antiinflammatory effect: stabilizes lysosomes and blocks the effects of histamine


increases heart rate and force of contraction, dilates bronchioles, decreases peristalsis, increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver, causes vasodilation in skeletal muscles, causes vasoconstriction in skin and viscera, increases use of fats for energy, increases rate of cell respiration


increases glucose transport into cells and the use of glucose for energy production; increases the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen in the liver and muscles; increases amino acid and fatty acid transport into cell sand their use in synthesis reaction


decreases secretion of insulin and glucagon; slows absorption of nutrients

growth hormone (GH)

increases rate of mitosis, amino acid transport into cells, rate of protein synthesis, use of fats of energy synthesis

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

increases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood, absorption of calcium and phosphate by small intestine, and reabsorption of calcium and the excretion of phosphate by the kidneys; activates vitamin D

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

increases water absorption by the kidney tubules (water returns to the blood)

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

increases secretion of thyroxine and T3 by thyroid gland


causes vasoconstriction in skin, viscera, and skeletal muscles

thyroxine and triiodothyronine (T3 and T4)

increase energy production from all food types, increase rate of protein synthesis

glucagon (alpha cells)

increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver; increases the use of excess amino acids and fats for energy


increases reabsorption of sodium (Na+) ions by the kidneys to the blood, increases excretion of potassium (K+) ions by kidneys in urine


decreases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bones to blood

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