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World Studies Unit 3 GottaKnows
Terms in this set (64)
explain as a cause of imperialism 1-6
The Industrial Revolution
The industrial Revolution caused imperialism because it made the countries search for new markets (workers) and new resources to use for goods.
Countries set out for new markets to trade in because their biggest drive to colonize was riches.
Nationalism caused imperialism because westerners saw how "wonderful" their societies were (medicine, law, & Christian religion) and believed they had a duty to spread their culture.
Westerners took Darwin's ideas about natural selection and applied it to human societies. They argued European races were superior & imperial conquest was nature's way of improving the human species
The White Man's Burden
This poem makes it seem as though westerners felt as if they HAD to step in and make these so-called savages become more like them.
Christian missionaries believed they had a duty to spread what they viewed as a blessing of western civilization (Christian religion). began spreading western culture
Why was it often said that "the sun never sets on the British empire?" name other leading colonial powers
This was said because the British empire had colonies all over the world (was huge) and therefore even if the sun was setting somewhere it was rising somewhere else within their control. OTHER COLONIAL POWERS: France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Italy US acquired Philippines and some of Latin America, colonized Africa, India, Latin America, and Pacific Islands
Direct Rule (Settlement Colony)
(France) Sent officials and soldiers to administer their colonies; goal was to impose culture on colonies and turn them into provinces. Reflected European belief that colonial people were unable to govern themselves.
Indirect Rule (dependent colony)
(Britain) Governor and council of advisers made laws for the colonies; local rulers loyal to the governor retained some authority and served as agents.
Local rulers were left in place but expected to follow advice of European advisers. Costs less. Less commitment.
Sphere of influence
Outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges. China & elsewhere to prevent conflicts among themselves. Us claimed parts of Latin America.
Describe King Leopold II's rule over the Belgian Congo
Hired Henry Stanley to explore Congo River Basin and arrange trade treaties with African Leaders
Publicly spoke of a civilizing mission that would get the Africans out of barbarism.
privately dreamed of conquest and profit; exploited the riches of the Congo ( copper, rubber, and ivory)
Belgian overseers tortured and brutalized workers who were working for very low wages.
How did King Leopold's actions contribute to "the scramble for Africa?"
King Leopold exposed many riches that are in Africa and therefore made many countries interested in the land, causing them to rush to the continent for unclaimed land to use and make profit off of.
How did the Berlin conference of 1884 affect the sovereignty of African nations?
No Africans were invited, the African nations were given little to no say in what happened and therefore their sovereignty was taken because European nations took control of African nations.
France's goal for colonizing Africa
To impose French culture & turn them into provinces
Britain's goal for colonizing Africa
why were the british interested in colonizing the Suez canal
The canal was a "lifeline"to India where Britain's influence was increasing. reduced travel time b/w Europe and Asia.
how did Cecil Rhodes impact Britain's plans in Africa
He helped their impact. helped extend Britain's African empire by one million square miles. British colony of Rhodesia (now zimbabwe) was named after him.
who were the boers, and why were the Boers wars fought? Who won? Consequences?
Boers were Dutch farmers and descendants of Dutch settlers. Britain acquired the Cape colony; boers resented british rule and many migrated north
the discovery of gold and diamonds in Boer Republics led to conflict with Britain.
Britain won, but w/ great cost.
Britain united Cape Colony and Boer Republics into South Africa
Complete racial segregation
Evaluate the effects (positive and negative) of European imperialism on Africa?
PROS- improved transportation and communication; better economies; railroads and telegraphs; travel is easier and faster; old tradition and accepting new western ideas;jobs created= people are able to develop new skills
CONS- railroads didn't benefit people being controlled; work for low wages;broke down traditional ways of life; became dependent on western powers
How is paternalism different from assimilation? Which one is related to westernization?
Paternalism is when the Westerners viewed Africa as children in need of guidance; assimilation is what the Africans went through, which is when they acquired the social, psychological, and cultural characteristics of a group. Assimilation is related to westernization
how did WWII contribute to African independence in the 1960s
-Japanese victories shattered the west's reputation as unbeatable
-African troops who fought for allies refused to accept discrimination
-Nationalists won the support of workers who migrated to work in industries in the cities
-European nations lacked resources and will to hold on to colonies; could not control rate of change
-France and Britain introduced reforms they thought would gradually lead to freedom
-Beginning in the 1950s they gave up direct rule of most colonies
How did pan-africanism contribute to African independence in the 1960s??????????????????? pg 407
the principle or advocacy of the political union of all the indigenous inhabitants of Africa. This contributed to African independence because they
How did Kwame Nkrumah contribute to African independence in the 1960s
Nkrumah led the people of Gold Coast in their quest for independence from Britain. He saw that the solution to the problem lay in the political freedom of the people, and then they'd be treated equally. felt it was better to govern themselves than be governed by anyone else.
how did jomo Kenyatta contribute to African independence in the 1960s
Called for nonviolent resistance. became first president
What present-day African country was founded by the Boers (AKA Afrikaners)?
What is apartheid?
system of strict racial segregation instituted in the late 1940s
created to help control black majority and prevent racial mixing -everyone is classified (white, black, or mixed)
-separate residential areas (must carry a pass at all times) + curfews - blacks work tough labor for little pay
What was the goal of the ANC? describe some tactics
Wanted to end apartheid. They used violent rebellions and even bombings to achieve goal.
why is Nelson Mandela such a big part of this story?
Because he was a part of the ANC, and began mobilizing young south africans to peacefully resist apartheid laws. He was arrested and condemned to life in prison in 1964, he was willing to die for this cause. Protests continuing and international pressure forced the government to lift the ban on the ANC and free Mandela and other political prisoners. In 1994 he became the first black president in South Africa's first non-racial election.
Why did Mandela share the Nobel Peace Prize with President F. W. de Klerk
they shared the prize because they worked together to achieve everything the country got, because without de Klerk's cooperation Mandela would still be in jail and very few things to end unjust laws would have been done.
Why did the British refer to India as the "Jewel of the Crown?"
Because India was the most profitable colony in the British empire, meaning that it had the most valuable resources and markets.
why was the British East India company so interested in it?
Because their main goal was to make money and India is highly profitable.
How did the company rule over the Indian people?
They gradually seized political control; divide and conquer tactics; superior weapons to locals; seized natural resources and then sold finished goods to Indians
Who were sepoys?
Indian soldiers recruited by the BEI company; helped company expand; required to serve anywhere as empire grew (overseas travel was an offense against some religions)
why did the Sepoy mutiny occur?
The sepoy mutiny occurred because the sepoys refused to bite off the tips of cartridges that were greased with animal fat. (cow= sacred to hindus, pig= forbidden to muslims). tensions mounted.
how did the mutiny/rebellion affect the colonization of India?
Ended parliament rule of BEIC and put india directly under Britain's control. More troops to India (taxed indians to pay for troops) discontent fed nationalist movements.
Evaluate the effects (positive and negative) of British imperialism on India
CONS- Ruins some industries; no gov't positions; deforestation; taxation to pay for troops; Debt; increase of exports w/o adequate compensation; peasants lost property; clearing new farmlands led to massive deforestation and other environmental destruction; pop. increase caused strain on food supply causing famines to sweep India.
Pros: Agricultural improvements; encouraged nomadic herders to settle into farming; farmers were encouraged to go into cash crops; pop. growth bc of med. improvements and increased food production; peace & order; unity; British education; Princes and landowners grew rich from cash crops; abolition of suttee and infanticide; destruction of thugs and other pests; education for both genders; gradual destruction of many moral/social evils; peace and order; freedom of speech, press from oppression; security of life and property; improve government of native states
What is meant by infrastructure? Give examples of infrastructure in the US
Basic structures that allow civilization to advance, such as roads, telephone lines, and bridges. Examples in the US are highways, bridges, telephone lines...etc.
How did the elimination of the hindu practice of sati exemplify a positive effect of British rule?
this practice forced hindu widows to commit suicide by throwing themselves on the fire that was cremating their husband. The elimination of this practice was a positive effect of British rule because it made sure the widows did not have to end their lives in such a gruesome way and could continue living and remarry if they wanted to.
Describe Ghandi's tactics in pursuing independence for India
He called for civil disobedience, or nonviolent protest.
why, according to Ghandi, was soul force better than body force?
It was better because in a way it made Britain seem unreasonable for not giving them what they wanted when they weren't breaking laws, just resisting/ disobeying unjust laws
why were these acts of civil disobedience effective?
These acts were effective because they showed discontent with laws in a coolheaded way.
explain the Great Salt March as an example of civil disobedience.
The Great Salt March was when Ghandi marched 240 miles to the sea, and picked up a handful of salt because he wanted to take a stand against the British salt monopoly, people traditionally got salt by boiling saltwater and there was natural salt on the shores. this was civil disobedience because he wasn't ruining anything or technically breaking laws and therefore was being civil but disobeying what Britain wanted.
Describe another example of civil disobedience (real or made up)
The black teenagers sitting at the lunch counter during the racial rights movement in america. Weren't doing anything wrong, just disobeyed unjust laws
summarize the problem Britain faced in the years leading up to Indian independence
Their were tensions rising between Hindus and Muslims because the Muslims feared discrimination under a Hindu-dominated government.
Why did the partition seem to be the best solution?
Splitting the country into Pakistan and India was the best decision because tensions were growing and leading to violence.
describe the reason behind the violence between Hindus and Muslims in the summer of 1947.
They still lived side by side and therefore whilst moving to their rightful countries they had to pass on another, and therefore millions were massacred along the way.
Describe the relationship between India and Pakistan today. What is Kashmir?
The tensions are still high and because they both have nuclear weapons, it is very dangerous. Kashmir is a state in the Himalayas with muslim and hindu populations. It has been fought over multiple times by India and Pakistan.
why was Ghandi assassinated in the midst of the partition?
Because Nathuram Godse did not want the partition and blamed Ghandi for the partition
Ghandi was succeeded by Jawaharlal Nehru. How did he shape India as a young nation?
Strengthened India's economy; food output rose and so did the pop.; encouraged family planning; fought discrimination based on caste
describe India's economy. what problems does India's economy face?
India's economy looks solid, but they face inflation;poor ed. standards and infrastructure and inequality has risen.
what is outsourcing, and why does it occur?
Outsourcing is when a country sends jobs to other countries, resulting in higher unemployment, this occurs because the people in the third world countries have a lower wage and therefore do the same exact work but for less.
why did the us become and imperial power?
strong industry and desire for raw materials, nationalism and manifest destiny -"take up the White Man's Burden"
-everyone else is
why did the US seek an open door policy in china?
They wanted an open door policy so that they could trade freely along with other countries without spheres of influence interfering
why/how did hawaii fall under US control? who was Lili? Sanford Dole?
Sugarcane farmers asked the US to annex it, and so it did. supporters of annexation said that if the US did not take hawaii, Britain or Japan might do so. Lili was the queen of Hawaii, but she tried to reduce foreign influence and was therefore overthrown. Sanford Dole was placed in control of Hawaii (Dole fruit).
why/how did Cuba and other latin american lands fall under American control?
Because European countries began meddling in the west, which was a violation to the monroe doctrine, and therefore the US takes control of Latin America. Cuba wanted independence from spain and the US backed them, causing the SpAm war and the US ended up taking control of Cuba.
Why was the Spanish-American War fought? what were the outcomes?
The spanish american war was fought because the US backed Cuba's fight for independence and the sinking of the Maine caused tensions to boil over into a full out war.
The US won, US buys Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines for 25 mil.
controversy surrounding the USS Maine
The Spanish are suspected of sinking the USS Maine, however there is no definitive answer as to who/what sunk the ship and killed 266 people, however this contributed extremely to the beginning of the war.
how did the Platt Amendment help cement the US as a colonial power?
The Platt amendment was in Cuba's constitution, which prevented Cubans from selling land to anyone else except America. this cemented the US as a colonial power because it basically made Cuba a US colony, which the US controlled.
What is the significance of the US naval base that was set up in Guantanamo Bay?
We got Guantanamo Bay because of the SpAm war from Cuba and began US intervention in Cuba.
Why did Teddy Roosevelt so badly want to build the Panama canal?
He wanted to benefit the US navy and US businesses.
How did the Roosevelt corollary help cement the US as a colonial power
The corollary was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine, it says that the US would intervene if "chronic wrongdoing" made European takeovers possible (unpaid debts=increased US presence)
What is significant about Emilio Aguinaldo's use of guerrilla warfare tactics? Filipino
He was the FIRST to use guerrilla tactics, killed 4,000 and frustrated Americans. He knew he wouldn't win using normal warfare tactics. This is like a fake bunt.
Evaluate the effects (positive and negative) of American imperialism on Latin America.
Pros- medical improvements, transportation and communication improvements
cons-Locals had to work in the plantations and mines; new economy system of earning and using money split families because they had to make money; became dependent on industrial powers
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