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chapter 4 world history Egypt/Nubia
what is bureacracy
system of offices and officials that the pharoahs relied on to handle the business of governments
what is the longest river?
Nile, over 3,500 miles long
Where is the Nile delta located?
How did they grow a surplus?
Built earthen walls to trap floodwaters and was a form of crop irrigation
who united the kingdoms of Upper and lower Egypt and became first pharoah and created dynasty
what is a pharoah
a king of a united Egypt
What is a delta
is an area of sediment soil or minerals carried by water deposited at the mouth of a river
what is a dynasty
a ruling family
Who was the important god of all those worshipped by ancient Egyptians, also known as Sun God
Who is the head of the bureaucracy
Who was the woman ruler who followed all rituals expected as a king, built economy through trade?
who was the ruler best known for the battles against the Hittite and for building more monuments during his reign?
Where was Upper Egypt
Area upstream from the Mediterranean Sea
The Egyptians called their rich, dark fertile soil, Kemet which means
the Black Land
Where does the White Nile flow into
Where does the Blue Nile run through
How many cataracts did the Nile River have?
What color crown did kings of Upper Egypt wear
What color crown did kings of Lower Egypt wear
What was the Old kingdom
period of prosperity, political strength and cutural achievement
What was the Middle kingdom
dealt with the flooding of the Nile by building canals that could drain dangerous flood waters and irrigate new farmland
What was the New Kingdom
conquered lands in Asia and Africa
What was the Egyptian Society rankings or the Social Pyramid?
Pharoah on top, Nobles, priests and officials, scribes, merchants/artisans, then farmers/servants/slaves
The geography of ancient Egypt included vast desert areas of burning sands known as...
the Red Land
what is a mummy
a body preserved by a special process
Who usually were made into mummies>?
What was the soil of the Nile River Valley is best characterized as
What is Polytheism
gods shared qualities of animals - strength/speed
What did people obey Pharoahs?
Pharoah's were considered gods on Earth, they feared angering gods
Who was the god of the underworld?
What did people believe about afterlife?
if you lived a good life, you will live forever, If you were sinful you would be destroyed
Where were poor people buried
in the desert, where their bodies were quickly dried out.
Why did Egyptians mummify their bodies
they believed that they needed to preserve their body have an afterlife
Why did Egypt trade with Nubia
They lacked forests, minerals, horses and other useful natural resources
Why did Egypt conquer Nubia
To control Nubia's riches,
Who were the candaces
queens, more powerful then the kings
What is commerce
buying and selling of goods and services
What is ivory
hard white material made from tusks
Trade between Nubia and Egypt created _________ since each country depended on the other for goods it did not have.
The Nubians created one of the world's first alphabets called ___________
Which country had less land to farm
What elements of Egyptian culture did Nubia adopt
Religion, they both saw kings as gods
Which pharoah boosted trade between Egypt and Nubia
What did Egyptians trade with Nubia?
Grain, cloth, papyrus, glass and jewelry
What did Nubia trade with Egypt?
gold and Elephant tusks
What Nubian king conquered Egyptian cities?
Piye or Piankhi
To control Nubia's riches, what did Egypt do?
Egypt conquered Nubia
Who did the Nubians have to pay tribute to?
What is ebony
a black wood from West Africa
What was the geography of Nubia?
Deserts, less land, which meant less food
What was the land like in Egypt
Rich in sunshine and fertile soil, had grain
What did Nubia trade with Africa
Goods, cloth, gold ebony. Also sold slaves
What aspects of its culture did Nubia take from Egypt?
Gods and the use of pyramids
Because Nubians had less land to farm than Egyptians
they were more motivated to trade
What was the name of the calendar with 365 days developed by Egyptians to link the seasons to help farmers called?
What was the name of the officials that were able to share and preserve knowledge for the Egyptians?
What did Book of the Dead a well-known piece of Literature represent
served as a guide to the afterlife for dead souls.
Was the Nubian culture the same as Egypt's culture?
Not the same
In what ways did the Nile River contribute to ancient Egyptian civilization?
Annual Nile River floods, fertile farmland in Egypt, Egyptians kept a calendar based on the star, Sirius, cliffs along the Nile River Valley served as sites for tombs and temples
Why did Hatsheput succeed as a pharoah?
She did everything expected of a king
What were some important achievements of Egyptians
hieroglyphic writing, a solar and lunar calendar and pyramid building.
Skilled artists created paintings on the interior wall of the pyramids and burial chambers depicting daily Egyptian life primarily to
provide the person buried with servants and things they needed
In order to construct the pyramids, Egyptians needed to be proficient in what fields of learning?
engineering and mathematics
What were the pyramids of Giza build for?
Khufu, khafre and Menkaure
What difference between the civilizations of Egypt and Nubia were the Nile cateracts responsible for?
How were the Egyptians able to predict when the Nile would flood each year?
By watching the horizon for the star Sirius to appear
What is cataract?
group of rocky rapids
What is an artisan
a skilled worker who practices a handicraft
After Egypt destroyed Napata, what capital city did Nubians move to?
What was papyrus?
a writing surface similar to paper named after the papyrus reed that grew along the Nile River in ancient Egypt
What is a pyramid?
a stucture with triangle sides, used as tombs for the pharoahs
What is anatomy
the structure of the human body and its organs
what is hieroglyphics
a system of writing that used drawing and symbols to represent words or sounds developed by the Egyptians
How did mummification advance the arts in Ancient Egypt?
It advanced medical knowledge
Where was Africa's first ironworking center located?