-came about due to new "technologies of power" - discoveries regarding psychology, biology, architecture, etc.
-focus no longer on physical punishment, but on control through the manipulation of the mind
-use of surveillance and discipline to control behavior:
--smaller, more precise punishments for specific behaviors
--systemic application of rules; impersonal: law decides on punishment
--system of disciple by itself will not deter individuals
--disciple requires surveillance ("the gaze"): small punishments will only deter if you're reasonably certain you'll be caught
--no need for centralized authority to control behavior
--surveillance and discipline incorporated into many social institutions
*prisons, workplace, military, etc.
*school: cameras, turnitin.com, etc.
--want as much as possible: panopticon
--designed as perfectly rational and efficient prison
--basis for next state of control
First emerged in Eastern Europe, now Mexico, parts of South America (Brazil, Argentina), China, India, S. Korea, Russia
*Engages in moderately profitable activities
--traditionally: basic manufacturing, assembly of goods, etc.
--today: manufacture of high-tech goods, less profitable services (e.g call centers, software programming, etc.)
*Serve as a buffer between periphery and semiperiphery
--prevents unified opposition to the core, as semiperiphery, are both exploiters and exploited.